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Full text of "Mentality of the arriving immigrant"



LIBRARY 

Walter E. Fernald 
State School 




Waverley, Massachusetts 



No . J.CM 




TREASURY DEPARTMENT 
UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 



PUBLIC HEALTH BULLETIN No. 90 

OCTOBER, 1917 



MENTALITY OF 
THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT 



BY 

E. H. MULLAN 

Surgeon, United States Public Health Service 



PREPARED BY DIRECTION OF THE SURGEON GENERAL 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF TIIIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

"WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

15 CENTS PER COPY 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 5 

Arithmetical tests 11 

Counting 11 

Addition 17 

Subtraction 23 

Division 23 

Problems 24 

Memory tests (nonarithmetfcal) 29 

Report 29 

Visual apprehension 32 

Repeating digits 33 

Story 35 

Cube Test 39 

Counting dots 44 

Learning 46 

Obeying commands 49 

Arranging objects 51 

Number of months in the year 56 

Names of months 56 

Number of days in the year 56 

Date 57 

Number of days in week 58 

Names of days in week 58 

Name of ship 59 

Copying and drawing from memory 59 

Transitional tests (nonarithmetical) 73 

Enumerating days of week backward 73 

Opposites 74 

Five animals 76 

Inverted animals 77 

Colors 78 

Coins 79 

Weights 79 

Difference between house and stable 80 

Christmas or Peysach 81 

Tests in reasoning (nonarithmetical) 83 

Geographic 83 

Healy 's Construction Test A 93 

Relationship 102 

Modification : 105 

Definitions 110 

Description 118 

Comparative scores of arriving immigrants 125 

Points allotted to each test 125 

Total scores made by each immigrant tested 126 

Discussion 131 

Bibliography . . . „ 132 

3 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 
Figure 1. "A Village" (taken from illustration, 16 by 11 inches, used in Report 

Test) 30 

2. View of board used in Visual Apprehension Test, with objects fas- 

tened to it Faces 32 

3. A movement of the Four-Cube Test, showing also how board may be 

used for Five-Cube Test 40 

4. Card used in Dot-Counting Test 45 

5. Face of card used in Learning Test 47 

6. Back of card used in Learning Test 47 

7. Board and field, with 16 pieces, used in Arranging Objects Test. ... 53 

8. Geometrical forms used in copying and drawing from memory 60 

9. Two standards for each design, used in grading the immigrants' draw- 

ings in Copying and Drawing from Memory Test 62 

10-39. Drawings made by immigrants in Copying and Drawing from Memory 

Test 64-70 

40. Geographic puzzle, as presented to immigrant for solution 84 

41. Geographic puzzle, with first three pieces in their proper clefts 84 

42. Geographic puzzle, with pieces in their proper clefts 84 

43. Healy Frame Test, as presented to immigrant for solution 94 

44. Healy Frame Test, as solved 94 

45. A type of error in solving Healy Frame Test 94 

46. Arrangement of pieces in Relationship Test 103 

47. Pig and chicken — Modification Test 106 

48. Pig, chicken, and man — Modification Test 106 

49. Two pigs, chicken, and man — Modification Test 107 

50. Two pigs, two chickens, and man — Modification Test 107 

51. "Last Honors to Bunny" (taken from illustration, 16 by 11 inches 

in size, used in Description Test) 119 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



By E. H. Mullan, Passed Assistant Surgeon, United States Public 

Health Service. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In order to diagnose mental disease and mental deficiency in an 
immigrant at an immigration station a knowledge of the mental 
ability and conduct of the normal or average immigrant at the time 
of arrival is necessary. Normal aliens at the time of landing are in a 
peculiar mental state. Many of them have come from rural districts 
where opportunities have been meager; they have parted from 
their relatives and friends; they have undergone a long voyage, per- 
haps suffering many hardships ; they are anxious to land and to meet 
relatives. Therefore, their mental condition has been partly shaped 
by all these circumstances; and if they are questioned or given mental 
tasks to perform at the time of arrival it is to be expected that their 
replies and general behavior will not be the same as would be obtained 
under other conditions. 

In order to assist medical officers in understanding the mentality 
of average immigrants it was decided that an experimental study 
should be undertaken at Ellis Island and that a number of immigrants 
who were not obviously mentally deficient or insane should be put 
through a definite examination to find out what they knew and what 
they could do under the conditions attending the landing from a long 
voyage. With this aim in view an examination, composed of ques- 
tions and performance tests, was carefully planned. Many of the 
tests had been in use for some time at immigrant stations and had 
been found serviceable in mental examinations. New tests were also 
employed, some of which proved to be of distinct value while others 
were attended with uncertain results. 

At first it was intended to examine a large number of immigrants of 
different nationalities who were free from physical defect, but diffi- 
culties made this impossible in a number of cases. It is believed, 
however, that defects of vision were the only ones which affected 
the examinations adversely. 

An interpreter who spoke Italian, Spanish, and German was 

assigned to the work. As Italian immigration was large at the time, 

it was decided to examine as many suitable cases as possible among 

the German and Spanish immigrants and to fall back on the Italians 

whenever the others could not be found. 

5 



6 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

The examination was conducted in a quiet, well-lighted, well- 
ventilated room on the second floor of the hospital, the subject, inter- 
preter, and examiner being the only ones present. These details 
must constantly be borne in mind as the results of the tests are con- 
sidered. As a rule the examination lasted one and a half hours. 

After a practice examination with various subjects, which lasted 
about a week, the examiner and interpreter acquired a definite 
method of procedure, and the examination proper began about the 
middle of January, 1914. 

The cases for the investigation were selected from those who had 
been detained at least 24 hours in the detention rooms or from the 
ambulatory cases of the hospital wards; but care was exercised not 
to select those who had been detained as suspicious cases of mental 
deficiency. The experimenter constantly endeavored to select young 
subjects (over 9 years of age) who had never been to school. A 
number of such immigrants are hard to find at any one time in the 
detention rooms of Ellis Island. This is shown by the fact that only 
4 illiterate children of 10 and 11 years of age, who could be questioned 
by the examining interpreter, were found while the examination was 
in progress. When such cases could not be found, the examiner had 
to make his choice between young literates and older illiterates. 
Sometimes he would choose the former and at other times the latter. 
Among the literates he always selected those who had received the 
smallest amount of schooling. 

Certain immigrants at the time of selection stated that they had 
never been to school and could not read and write. When the 
examination was half through or entirely completed, however, many 
of these cases acknowledged that they had been to school for several 
months or several years. Their former statements regarding school 
attendance were immediately corrected, and they were placed in one 
of the literate groups. 

Most of the Hebrew children had been to Cheydar, a religious 
school in which varying amounts of reading and arithmetic are 
taught. The statements in regard to the amount of instruction 
received in these religious schools varied greatly in different cases. As 
the Cheydar children responded to the tests about as well as the other 
literate adults, it was thought best to place them among the literate 
groups. 

Owing to the outbreak of the European war, it became difficult to 
find suitable immigrants for the examination. In September, 1914, 
it was also felt that enough data had been secured for the purpose of 
showing how average arriving immigrants respond and behave under 
the ordeal of a mental examination. Hence the tests were dis- 
continued. 

At the conclusion of this study 296 immigrants had been examined. 
Three of them turned out to be positive cases of mental deficiency. 



INTRODUCTION. 



They were certified for deportation as such, and their records were 
not included in this exposition. It was thought that 8 other immi- 
grants were possible cases of mental deficiency. As a positive diag- 
nosis could not be made in regard to them at one examination, how- 
ever, their records were retained. It is believed that this procedure 
has produced a truer average record than it would had these par- 
ticular cases been excluded from the results. 

The 293 subjects examined and recorded were distributed among 
the following races: 



Italians 103 

Hebrews 50 

Russians 26 

Ruthenians 26 

Spaniards 25 

Germans 21 

Poles 11 



Greeks 11 



Norwegians 

Lithuanians 

West India Negroes. 

Danes 

Algerian 

Arabian 



Armenian.. 

Cuban 

Egyptian... 

Irish 

Roumanian 
Swiss 



For the purpose of presentation, these immigrants were arranged 
in two general divisions — literates and illiterates. Those who had 
been to school for six months or more and those who had learned 
something about reading and writing at home during a similar period 
of time were considered as literates. Both literate and illiterate 
immigrants are divided into three groups according to age. Three 
special groups, composed of Italians and Slavs — most of whom were 
over 15 years of age and were therefore classed as adult — and Hebrew 
children were also formed. The different groups were at times 
divided into subgroups of the two sexes. 

The following table shows how the groups were arranged: 

Table 1. — Groups into which immigrants were divided. 



Literate division. 


Illiterate division. 


Number of 
immigrants. 


Group. 


Number of 
immigrants. 


Group. 


12 
25 

37 
100 


Ages 9-11. 
Hebrew, ages 9-11. 
Ages 12-14. 
Ages 15 and above. 

• 


4 

8 
29 
40 
40 


Ages 10-11. 
Ages, 12-14. 
Ages 15 and above. 

Italian. 
Slav. 



The composition of these groups, giving the nationality, race, age, 
sex, and years of schooling of each immigrant, is shown in the final 
section of the bulletin (pp. 126-130). 1 

Conclusions based on the results obtained in testing the illiterate 
10-11 group, composed of 4 immigrants, 10 and 11 years of ago, 
should not be indiscriminately applied to all illiterate children of those 

1 In this section it will be noted that two immigrants (Russian No. 26 and Austria Ruthenian No. 22) 
appear in both the illiterate 12-14 and the Slav illiterate groups. This is the only case in which a duplication 
occurred. 



8 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



ages. The data presented in regard to this group have some value, 
especially in the absence of any other data, but the group is entirely 
too small for the purpose of drawing general conclusions. The same 
qualification applies in part to some of the other groups. 

It will be noticed in the tables of results that the number of immi- 
grants examined in a particular test occasionally fall short of the 
number that comprise the group. This is due to the fact that in 
certain cases the examination was discontinued on account of acci- 
dental causes. 

The tests are divided into two general classes, arithmetical and 
nonarithmetical. The latter is subdivided into memory tests, transi- 
tional tests, and tests in reasoning. A group of immigrants is said 
to qualify on a test when 75 per cent of its members are successful, 
but this mark is a purely arbitrary one adopted by the experimenter. 

The examination chart which was filled out in the case of each 



immigrant is here shown 



Examination chart. 



No. Name Vision Hearing Gait Stigmata Gen. appearance 

Time Where detained Nationality Race Sex Age 

Occupation Address in United States 



Residence, 



["Estimation^ 
I of houses J 



Church 



f No. 






(distance/ 



f No. 
'(distance/ 



School,^ 



Railway: Schooling, < „. ' i 

J °'l Sisters j 

-^. . n ., f Brothers) 

Did you learn as easily ass ~. > 



Counting:: 



Alien / Tel1 Why y0U did \ 
'\not go to school?/ 

Why are you go-'i 

ing to America?/ 



Additions 



Cubes:: 



20 to 1 


(T) = 










2 to 20 (2's 


T) = 






20 to 2 (2's 


T) « 






.3 to 30 (3's 


T) = 






'3 + 4 = 




8 + 6 = 


2 4-3 + 4 = 


6 + 6 = 




15 + 15 = 


24- 44-64-8 = 


6 + 7 = 




15 + 16 = 


17 + 13 + 9 + 4 = 


( 






1. 4. 2. 3. = 










1. 3. 4. 2. = 




1. 4. 5. 2. 3. = 






TO 

p 1 


1. 3. 2. 4. = 


© 

2: 


2. 4. 1. 3. 5. = 






B 


4. 2. 3. 1. = 




5. 1. 3. 4. 2. = 






O 


3. 2. 4. 1. = 
2. 4. 1. 3. = 




4. 3. 5. 2. 1. = 



Subtraction: 



A. 6 apples — 2 apples = 

B. 12 apples — 5 apples = 



C. 20 - (3 bread + 4 meat) (T) l = 



i a T ,, means that time was recorded. 



INTRODUCTION 



Modification : 

Division: Divide 20 apples equally among 4 persons 



Problems: 



How many legs have? 

1 horse = 

2 horses = 
,3 horses = 

Visual apprehension: (4") 

Narrative 



Report: (20") 



Horse 4- man 4- chicken (8. T) = 

2 horses 4- 2 men (12. T) = 

3 horses 4- 2 men (16. T) = 
Horse 4- 2 men 4- 3 chickens (14. T) = 



Interrogatory 
ft. Church? 



■4-a 

0) 
O 
GQ 

P 

o 

>> 

• iH 
ft 



2. Steps? 

3. Horse, white? 

4. Dog? 

5. Man? 



o 

■ iH 

•iH ' 
!h 
U 
0Q 

0) 

Q 



' ^ A. City or village 
B. Butcher shop 



.3 © 



E. Last Honors to Bunny 



73 

B 

§• 

d 

'ft 

o 

O 



"SB C. Barnyard 

«+_ A D. Harbor scene 

O 

,,_; E. Last Honors to Bunny 

'2. What is going on in the picture? 

3. WLat are the boys and girl doing? 

4. What is the big boy doing? 

5. Why is he digging a hole? 

6. Is he digging a hole in which to bury the rabbit? 

7. What is the girl going to do with the flowers? 

Copying Drawing from memory Arranging objects 

f3 8 2 3184 79381 851634 9218743 21763859 
497 1768 27493 147839 1396485 

1. Block on table 

2. Book on floor 

3. Open door 



No. 

Repeating digits: 



1. Pencil on table 

2. Close door 



1. Book on floor 

1. Open door 

2. Chair in corner 

2. Chair near window 3. Book on table 

3. Pencil on chair 

4. Block on floor 



Learning 

Geographical 

Story 



Relationship 



4. Chair near window 

5. Pencil in corner 

Counting dots 



10 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Range of information: 




Months 


days in the year 


Days of week 


backward 


Christmas 


Name of ship 


Colors 


coins 


[1. Tree 


3. Run 


Define:] 


. 


[2. Bed 


4. Truth 



date 



weights 



"Healy" Difference between home and stable 

Pictures of five animals 



Opposites:J 



Remarks: 



Man Winter Rich 

Day Cold Sick 

Good High Up 

.Inside Yes Boy 



Perhaps as many as 12 immigrants who gave fair responses to 
tests and questions exhibited extreme peculiarities in behavior 
which were suggestive of pathological mental states. 

Symptoms which occurred in different cases suggested the existence 
of defective judgment, paranoid trends, manic-depressive, hysterical, 
and epileptic make-ups, as well as other psychopathic states. Notes 
were taken in all of these cases but will not be here shown, as they 
belong more properly to the domain of psychiatry. 

Acknowledgments. — The author wishes to thank Dr. August Hoch, 
of the Psychiatric Institute of the New York State Hospital Service, 
for certain suggestions which he made, at the beginning of the 
experiment. 

The author also wishes to thank Prof. Henry Alford Ruger, De- 
partment of Psychology, Teachers College, and Prof. R. S. Wood- 
worth, Department of Psychology, Columbia University, for advising 
the giving of certain tests and making other suggestions in regard to 
the examination. 

He is indebted to Interpreters Emile Carpentier and Reuben 
Volovick, of the Immigration Service, for their cooperation. He 
is also indebted to officers and employees of the Public Health 
Service, who rendered assistance in many ways. 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 
COUNTING. 

The immigrant was tested in counting backward from 20 to 1, 
forward from 2 to 20 by 2's, backward from 20 to 2 by 2's, and 
forward from 3 to 30 by 3's. Two trials for each counting test were 
permitted. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

In the 20-to-l test the interpreter said to the subject, " Count 
backward from 20 to 1: thus, 20, 19, 18, 17, and so on.'' Time 
was taken with stop watch from the instant the immigrant said 20 
until he reached 1 . 

Whenever the immigrant succeeded at the first trial the time 
required for the performance was immediately recorded on his 
examination chart. Three or less mistakes * were not counted 
against the immigrant, but if he made more than three, or if he 
came to a complete stop, the trial was recorded as a failure. The 
subject was then told to pay strict attention, while the interpreter 
slowly counted from 20 to 1 three times in succession. After this 
instruction the subject was again asked to count from 20 to 1, this 
constituting the second trial. 

The other counting tests were conducted in the same way. 

RESULTS. 

A statement of the results obtained in the 4 counting tests by the 
9 groups of immigrants follows. In the 20-to-l test, which is more 
frequently used than the other counting tests, the average deviation 2 
in the performance time of each group or subgroup is shown . 

i A mistake in counting occurred when the subject injected the wrong number, skipped a number, or 
when he was assisted by the examiner. The examiner assisted the immigrant whenever the latter did 
fairly well but accidentally got off the track. 

2 The average deviation is obtained by finding the differences between the individual time records and 
the average time record in each group of immigrants and then finding the mean of these differences. 

11 



12 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 
Table 2. — Results of counting tests. 





Group. 


o 
P 

1 

03 
K 
<x> 
u 

CD 

1 

3 


Number 
successful. 


th 

a 

h 

CD 

a 

3 


Percent- 
ages. 


Time required for success. 




First trial. 1 


Second 
trial.i 


Test. 


*3 

■+-> 

09 


"C 

fl 
O 

o 

cd 

gq 


"3 

EH 


BB 

9 
ea 

CO 

s 



GO 


3! 

3 

pq 




a 

O 

bO 
03 
K 



i> 
< 


i 

CD 

® 

of-B 

ft 03 


CD , 
bo 

S a) 

g 

CD4S 
EH 


a 

CD 

w. 

(I 


CD . 

03 cD 
U* CD 

52-2 

a CD 

EH 




Literate: 

9-11 


12 

25 

37 

100 

4 

8 

29 

21 

8 

40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 

12 

25 

37 

100 

4 
8 
29 
21 
8 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 

12 
25 
16 
9 
37 
18 
19 
100 
51 
49 

4 
8 
4 
4 

29 
21 
8 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 


12 

24 
36 
99 

2 

7 

29 
21 

8 

35 
19 
16 
31 

7 
24 

12 
25 
36 
99 

2 
8 
26 
19 
7 
36 
18 
18 
36 
10 
26 

12 

22 
15 
7 
34 
17 
17 
95 
49 
46 

1 
3 

2 

1 

25 

20 

5 

30 


... 

1 
1 

... 

"i 
"i 

6 
3 
3 

"i 

i 

2 

""a 

2 
1 
3 

1 
2 
3 

"**3 

"3 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 

'"3 

"**3 

2 
1 
1 


12 

25 

37 

100 

2 
8 
29 
21 
8 
36 
19 
17 
37 
10 
27 

12 

25 

37 

100 

4 
8 
29 
21 
8 
1 

19 
20 
39 
10 
29 

12 
25 
16 
9 
36 
18 
18 
99 
51 
48 

1 
6 
2 
4 

27 
21 
6 
30 
19 
11 
36 
9 
27 


2 

**4 
1 
3 
3 

"3 

"i 

.... 

"i 

"i 

1 

.... 

3 
2 
2 

""2 

""2 
10 
1 
9 
4 
1 
3 


100 
100 
100 
100 

50 
100 
100 
100 
100 

90 

95 

85 

92i 
100 

90 

100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

97§ 

95 
100 

97J 
100 

96§ 

100 
100 
100 
100 

97+ 
100 

94i+ 

99 
100 

98- 

25 

75 

50 
100 

93+ 
100 

75 

75 

95 

55 

90 

90 

90 


50 

10 

5 

15 

71 

'2 

10 
5 

2i 
3J 

2|+ 

5+ 

1 

2+ 

75 
25 

50 

7- 

25 
25 
5 
45 
10 
10 
10 


Sees. 
13 
18 
13 
14 

19J 

24' 

22 

22 

23 

25 

22 

29 

22 

21 

22 

7 
6 
7 
6 

8 
16 

9 

8 
10 
11 

9 
14 
14 
15 
13 

12 
14 
13 
15 
10 
12 
9 
11 
11 
10 

217 
13 
12j 
29 
16 
15 
21 
19 
17 
21 
22 
21 
22 


Sees. 
3 
6 
3 
2 

3J 

10 
9 

9 

7 


Sees. 
6-20 
9-40 
8-24 
7-36 

316-23 
10-50 
7-52 
7-52 
13-34 
10-60 
10-46 
16-60 
10-51 
14-36 
10-51 

3-15 
3-13 
3-27 
2-27 

3 6-10 
5-29 
4-18 
4-18 
5-17 
4-45 
4-20 
4-45 
5-26 
6-26 
5-23 

5-25 
5-30 
5-25 
5-30 
4-23 
6-21 
4-23 
4-45 
5-45 
4-34 


Sees. 


Sees. 




Hebrew, 9-11 

12-14 


2 105 
2 30 
2 26 






Illiterate: 

10-11 




20 


12-14 


2 63 




to 


15-above 




1 


Men 








Women 








Italian 


2 110 






Men 






Women 


2 110 

49 
56 

42 






Slav 


30-66 




Men 


41-66 




Women 


30-63 




Literate: 

9-11 






Hebrew, 9-11 








12-14 


2 26 
2 20 

34 






15-above 




2 


Illiterate: 

10-11 


3 33-35 


to 


12-14 




20 


1 15-above 


20 

18 

2 24 

17 

2 15 

19 

24 


14-24 


by 

2's 


Men 


314-22 


Women 






Italian 


15-22 




Men 






Women 


315-22 




Slav 


19-32 




Men 






Women 


24 


19-32 




Literate: 

9-11 






Hebrew, 9-11 


28 
2 56 
14| 
29 
2 28 
2 30 
22 
221 
21 2 


14-56 




Boys 






Girls 


44-45 




12-14 


328-30 




Boys 






Girls 






15-above 


17-26 




Men 


320-25 


20 


Women 


317-26 


to 
2 


Illiterate: 
{ 10-11.. 




by 

2's 


12-14 




9-13 
312-13 


34 


29-40 


Boys. . 






Girls . . 


34 

22^ 
227 

2 16 


29-40 




15-above 




6-50 
6-50 

10-30 
5-50 
5-50 
6-43 
7-70 

10-35 
7-70 


316-27 




Men 






Women 






Italian . . . 






Men. . 


19... . 
11 - 








Women . 








Slav 


28 

7 

21 


8 
2 
6 


33 
43 

29 


19-67 




Men 


320-67 






19-42 



Only those who succeeded in the trial are considered. 



2 1 case. 



3 2 cases. 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 
Table 2. — Results of counting tests — Continued. 



13 





Group. 


9 

B 


C3 

X 
a> 
u 

CO 

-a 
B 

3 


Number 
successful. 


si 

a 

3 
s 


Percent- 
ages. 


Time required for success. 




First trial. 


Second 
trial. 


Test. 


■♦s 

m 


•4-5 

S3 
O 

o 
o 


|3 


i 

i 



| 

'3 


© 
1 

© 
Ml 
<S 

c 

s 

> 

< 


9 

u a 
3 
> 
<1 


CP 1 
M | 

5 « 

C3 CO 
— CO 

<o -^ 



J 

CD 
W> 
05 
E 
CD 
> 
< 


T5 
CO 1 

u, 

C3 CD 
t- CO 

•1 

©-«-> 
Eh 




Literate: 

9-11 


12 
25 
16 
9 
37 
18 
19 
100 
51 
49 

4 
8 

29 
21 
8 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 


10 
24 
15 
9 
32 
15 
17 
87 
45 
42 

2 

4 

17 

14 

3 

26 
16 
10 
14 
7 
7 


2 
1 
1 

"3 
2 
1 
10 
4 
6 

1 
3 
9 
6 
3 
5 
1 
4 

21 
3 

18 


12 
25 
16 
9 
35 
17 
18 
97 
49 
48 

3 

7 

26 
20 

6 
SI 


"2 

1 
1 
3 
2 
1 

1 

1 
3 
1 
2 
9 


100 

100 

100 

100 
94*+ 
94- 
94i+ 
97 
96+ 
98- 

75 
87* 
89| 
95+ 
75 
77*. 
85 
70 
87J 
100" 
83* 


5+ 
5£+ 

5+ 

3 

3*+ 

2+ 

25 
12J 

10*. 
5- 
25 
22* 
15 
30 
12-| 

16§ 


Sees. 
21 
19 
18 
21 
12 
11 
13 
12 
12 
11 

21 
21 
13 
12 
20 
19 
17 
22 
25 
30 
20 


Sees. 


Sees. 
4-35 
4-35 
4-35 
7-35 
4-22 
4-22 
4-22 
3-33 
5-33 
3-27 

U2-30 

15-32 
6-30 
6-30 

14-28 
5-79 
5-79 

10-42 
6-55 

10-55 
6-36 


Sees. 

1 18 

2 24 
224 


Sees. 




Hebrew, 9-11 






Girls 

12-14 






38 
41 J 
232 
29 
41 
21 

2 41 
38 
31 
25 
45 
22 

217 

24 
32 
30 
32 


32-45 




Boys 


338-45 




Girls 






15-abo ve 


16-60 


3 


Men 


20-60 


to 
30 
by 

3's 


Women 

Illiterate: 

10-11 

12-14 


16-25 

22-47 




15-abo ve 


11-70 




Men 


11-50 




Women 


20-70 




Italian 


8-40 




Men 


17| 3 
14| 6 
35j 5 

10.... 
25 5 






Women 


8-40 




Slav 


15-64 




Men 

Women 


25-37 
15-64 













i 2 cases. 



2 1 case. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

The results of the counting tests in all groups are presented below 
in combined form: 

Counting 20 to 1. — This test was accomplished by all immigrants 
of the literate groups, all but three succeeding in the first trial. At 
trial 1 the time ranged from 6 to 40 seconds. The average time in 
171 cases was 14 J seconds. Among the literates above the age of 
9 the performance of this test was uninfluenced by age. 

Of the 121 illiterates 112 succeeded in counting from 20 to 1, 
8 of them succeeding at the second trial. At the first trial the time 
ranged from 7 to 60 seconds. The average time for the first trial 
in 104 cases was 23 seconds. Two members, or 50 per cent, of the 
illiterate 10-11 group were unable to perform this test. The men of 
the Slav and Italian illiterate groups slightly excelled the women. 

Counting 2 to 20 by 2's. — This test was accomplished by all mem- 
bers of the literate groups. All children under 12 years of age suc- 
ceeded at trial 1. A Ruthenian boy, age 13, and a Spaniard, age 28, 
required 2 trials, although both had previously succeeded at the 
first trial in counting from 20 to 1. At trial 1, the time ranged from 
2 to 27 seconds, the average time in 172 cases was 6 \ seconds. 



14 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Among the illiterates, an Italian man, age 28, who had succeeded 
in counting from 20 to 1, failed in this test. A Ruthenian girl, 
age 17, failed on this test as well as on the 20 to 1 test, but succeeded 
in the two more difficult counting tests. Outside of these two 
cases all the illiterates, 119 out of 121, succeeded in counting from 2 
to 20 by 2's, although 11 of them required 2 trials. At the first trial 
the time ranged from 4 to 45 seconds. The average time in 108 cases 
was llf seconds. 

Counting 20 to 2 by 2's. — This test was executed by 172 out of 174 
literate immigrants, 9 successful immigrants requiring 2 trials. At 
the first trial the time ranged from 4 to 45 seconds, the average per- 
formance time in 163 cases was 11} seconds. 

Among the illiterates 100 out of 121, or 75 per cent of every group 
with the exception of the illiterate 10-11 group, succeeded with this 
test. Ninety-five per cent of the men and only 55 per cent of the 
women of the Italian illiterate group succeeded. Thirteen illiterate 
immigrants required 2 trials in order to succeed. At the first trial, 
time ranged from 5 to 70 seconds. The average time in 87 cases was 
17§ seconds. At the second trial, the time ranged from 16 to 67 
seconds, the average time in 13 cases was 30 seconds. 

Counting 3 to 30 by 3's.— This test was executed by 169 out of 174 
literate immigrants, 16 of them requiring 2 trials. At the first trial 
the time ranged from 3 to 35 seconds, the average performance time 
being 16 seconds in 153 cases. At the second trial the time ranged 
from 16 to 60 seconds, the average performance time being 27J 
seconds in 16 cases. 

Among the illiterates 102 out of 121 immigrants succeeded — that 
is, 75 per cent of every illiterate group succeeded in this test, although 
only 70 per cent of the Italian women qualified. Above the age of 9, 
so far as speed and accuracy of performance are concerned, no age 
difference has been observed. Above the age of 14 the illiterate men 
made a slightly better showing than the women. Thirty-nine 
illiterate immigrants, including 21 Slavs and 5 Italians, required 2 
trials. At the first trial the time ranged from 5 to 79 seconds, 
the average time being 20 seconds in 63 cases. At the second trial, 
the time ranged from 8 to 70 seconds, the average time being 33 
seconds in 39 cases. 

DISCUSSION. 

From the above results it appears that illiterate immigrant children, 
ages 10 and 11, in a quiet examination room 24 hours after arrival 
can not be expected to count from 20 to 1 by 2's, or even by l's. 
However, after preliminary practice with the other counting tests, 
they may be expected to count from 3 to 30 by 3's. 

The main fault with the experiment is that too few of this par- 
ticular kind of alien were examined. As above pointed out, it was a 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 15 

difficult matter to find European children over 9 years of age and 
under 12 who had not been to school. 

The experiment also shows that the illiterate Italian women 
do not count backward by 2's and do not count forward by 3's 
so well as the other groups. 

The following series show how the immigrant counted in either 
the first or the second trial. Records which were considered satis- 
factory because they contained not more than three mistakes are 
given first. An assist by the examiner, counted as a mistake, is 
indicated in a series by a number in parentheses. Intervals in the 
series indicate long pauses on the part of the subjects. 

Counting 20 to 1: 
20, 19 .... 18, 17 .... 16, 15 .... 14, 13 .... 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 1. 
20 take away 1, 19 take away 1, .... 18, 18 take away 1, 17, 17 take away 1, 16 .... 

16 take away 1, 14, 14 take away 1, 13 (and so on down to 1). 
20, 19, 19, 18 .... 18, 17 .... 17, 16 .... 16, 15 .... 15, 14 .... 14, 13, 13, 12 (and 

soon down to 1). 
20, 19, 18, 19, 18, 17, 15, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10 (and so on down to 1). 
20-1, 19; 19-1, 18; 18, 18-1, 16, (17); 17-1, 16; 16-1, 15 (and so on down to 1). 
20 .... 19 .... 18 ... 16 .... 15 .... 14 .... 12 .... 11 .... 9 .... 8, 7 .... 6, 5, 4, 3, 

2,1. 
Counting 2 to 20 (by 2' s): 
2 and 2, 4; 4 and 2, 6; 6 and 2, 8; 8^and 2. 10; (and so on up to 20). 
And 2, 4, and 2, 6, and 2, 8, and 2, 10, and 2, 12 (and so on up to 20). 

2 and 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 and 2, 12, and 2, 14, 15 (16) and 2, 18, 20. 
Counting 20 to 2 {by 2's): 

20-2, 18; 18-2, 16; 16-2, 14; 14-2, 12; 12-2 (and so on down to 2). 
20-2, 18; 16, 14, 13, (12), 10, 8, 7, (6), 4, 2. 
Counting 3 to 3 (by 3's): 

3 and 3, 6, and 3, 9, and 3, 12, and 3, 15, and 3, 17 (18), and 3, 21, and 3, 24, and 3, 
28, and 3, 30. 

6, 6, 9, 9, 12, 12, 15, 17 (18) .... 21, 24, 27. 
3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 16 (18), 21, 23 (24), 27, 31. 

Each of the following series show 4 mistakes or more. They were 
therefore scored as failures. 

Counting 20 to 1: 

20, 19, 17 .... 16, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0. 

20-1. 19, 19-1, 17, 18-1, 16, 16-1, 14, 14-1, 13, 13-1, 12, 12-1, 11, 11-1, 12, 

11-1,10, 10-1,9, 9-1,8, 7, 6 (and so on down to 1). 
20 .... 19 .... 18 .... 19 .... 19 .... 16 .... 15 .... 14 .... 13 .. 14 .... 14 .. (and 

so on down to 1). 
Counting 2 to 20 (by 2's): 

2 and 2, 4, and 2, 6, and 2, 7, (8), and 2, 10, 10 and 2, 11, (12), and 2, 13, (14), and 

2, 16, and 22, 17, 19, and 2, 21. 
Counting 20 to 2 (by 2's): 
20-2,19(18), 18-2,16, 16-2, 15 Q4), 14-2, 13, 13-2, 11, 11-2,9, 9-2, 7, 

7-2, 4, 4-2, 2, 0. 
Counting 3 to 30 (by 3's) : 

3 and 3, 6, and 3, 8 (9), and 3, 11 (12), and 3, 14, and 3, 17, and 3, 21, and 3, 23, 
and 3, 26, and 3, 30. 



16 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

A number of immigrants who had failed to count from 20 to 1, in- 
variably succeeded in counting from 10 to 1. 

A number of immigrants who failed in the different counting tests 
at both trials gave sufficient evidence to show that they possessed real 
counting ability. Several who failed at the second trial, having 
made 4 or 5 mistakes, showed marked improvement over their first 
attempts. In most cases the first trial is really an index as to what 
numerical relationships the subject has absorbed, while the second 
trial is often a test in learning. 

A number of immigrants, who succeeded after much laborious 
effort, exclaimed that this was the first time in their lives that they 
had accomplished such a feat. An important point to remember is 
that one who accomplishes this task with much effort for the first 
time may have a better mentality than one who can rattle off quickly 
a counting series. In the first case it may be an entirely new prob- 
lem and be solved by purposive thinking. In the second case it may 
be simply an act of recall by an inferior intellect. This is an excel- 
lent example of the necessity of skilled diagnosticians to differentiate 
and decide upon cases of suspected mental deficiency. No age tests, 
point scales, or other standards can be trusted in cases of this kind. 

Practically all immigrants above the age of 12 can count from 20 
to 1. They learn to do this by a process of mental retracing. The 
ability to count forward in work or play implies that sooner or later 
the normal mind will see numerical relationships and will be able to 
count backward. For example, when one immigrant was asked how 
he had learned to count backward, he replied, "In minding a flock of 
sheep, several strayed away. This made me count backward." 
Another said, "One learns counting backward in watching the cattle 
in the field. I counted backward five years ago." It must be true 
also that the reversed associative process in counting backward is 
similarly impressed upon the peasant who sells his farm products or 
who accidentally breaks his eggs. 

Some normal immigrants fail at first on the counting tests, but later 
succeed. It would seem that the first attempt is preparing them or 
getting their mental mechanism in form for a successful performance. 

In this test or in any other test temporary emotional disturbance 
may mask real ability on the part of the subject. 

All members of the illiterate 15 and above group succeeded in count- 
ing from 20 to 1 at the first trial, while 3 of them required 2 trials in 
counting from 2 to 20 by 2's, an obviously easier test. Other pe- 
culiar and interesting variations in immigrant psychology are brought 
out in the above summary. 

Counting 2 to 20 by 2's was found to be the easiest counting test; 
counting 20 to 1 was a little more difficult; while counting 20 to 2 by 
2's and 3 to 30 by 3's appear to be the most difficult. 1 

i Of the 121 illiterate immigrants, 119 succeeded in counting 2 to 20 by 2's, 112 in counting 20 to 1, 102 in 
counting 3 to 30 by 3's, and 100 in counting 20 to 2 by 2's. 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 
ADDITION. 



17 



The following nine examples in addition were put to each immi- 
grant to be solved mentally. Two trials were allowed for each: 



3+4= 
6+6= 
6+7= 



8+6= 

15+15= 

15+16= 



2+3+4= 

2+4+6+8= 

17+13+9+4= 



METHOD OF TESTING. 

The interpreter said to the subject, "How many are 3 and 4?" 
repeating the question immediately. In the event of failure at this 
first trial, the interpreter again stated the question twice, and the 
immigrant's response concluded the second trial. This method was 
used in propounding all nine examples. 

RESULTS. 

The following table gives the results of these tests: 
Table 3. — Results of addition tests. 



Group. 



Literate, ages 9-11 (12 examined).. 



Hebrew literate, ages 9-11 (25 
examined). 



Literate, ages 12-14 (37 examined). 



Test. 



3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

2+4+6+8... 
[17+13+9+4. 

f3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

2+4+6+8... 
17+13+9+4. 



f3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

Boys (18), 
Girls (19). 

2+4+6+8.... 
Boys (18), 
Girls (19). 

17+13+9+4.. 
Boys (18). 
Girls (19). 



Number successful. 



First 
trial. 



11 
12 
10 
12 
12 
10 
11 
9 
6 

24 

25 
24 
22 
25 
24 
17 
IS 
14 

34 
36 
36 
36 
37 
34 
30 
15 
15 
26 
12 
14 
21 
14 
7 



Second 
trial. 



Total. 



12 
"12 
12 
12 
12 
11 
11 
12 
9 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
24 
25 
23 
19 

36 
36 
37 
37 
37 
35 
36 
17 
19 
34 
16 

18 
28 
14 
14 



Num- 
ber 
failing. 



Percentages. 



Suc- 
cesses. 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

91§ 

91§ 
100 

75 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

96 
100 

92 

76 

97+ 
97+ 

100 

100 

100 
94£+ 
97+ 
94+ 

100 
91*+ 
89- 
94i + 
75*+ 
78- 
73*+ 



Fail- 
ures. 



8J 



25 



8 
24 

25+ 

2J+ 



5+ 
2* + 
5h+ 



8+ 
11 + 

5 + 
24 + 
22 + 
26+ 



1970°— 17- 



18 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 
Table 3. — Results of addition tests — Continued. 



Group. 



Literate, ages 15 and above (100 
examined). 



Illiterate, ages 10-11 (4 examined). 



Illiterate, ages 12-14 (8 examined) 



Test. 



Illiterate, ages 15 and above (29 
examined). 



Italian illiterate (40 examined, 20 
men and 20 women). 



3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6... 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

Men (51).... 
Women (49). 

2+4+6+8 

Men (51) 
Women (49) 

17+13+9+4 

Men (51) 
Women (49). 

f3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

2+4+6+8 

17+13+9+4 



Number successful. 



First 
trial. 



Second 
trial. 



Total. 



3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

2+4+0+8... 
117+13+9+4. 



3+4 

6+6 

6+7 

8+6 

15+15 

15+16 

2+3+4 

Men (20)... 

Women (8). 
2+4+6+8 

Men (20)... 

Women (8). 
17+13+9+4.... 

Men (20)... 

Women (8). 



3+4 

Men 

Women . 

6+6 

Men 

Women . 

6+7 

Men 

Women . 

8+6 

Men 

Women . 

15+15 

Men 

Women . 

15+16 

Men 

Women . 

2+3 + 4 

Men 

Women . 

2+4+6+8... 

Men 

Women . 

17+13+9+4. 

Men 

Women . 



97 
100 
94 
88 
98 
92 
76 
39 
37 
57 
29 
28 
56 
31 
25 

3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 



5 

7 
7 
7 
5 
4 
1 

26 

27 
24 

20 
27 
26 
20 
14 




5 
2 

38 

18 
20 
38 
19 
19 
37 
17 
20 
31 
13 
IS 
30 
17 
13 
28 
18 
10 
20 
10 
10 
12 
10 
2 
6 
6 



6 

9 

1 

5 

16 

7 

9 

22 

13 

9 

16 

10 





1 
19 
1 
1 
1 



Num- 
ber 
failing 



100 
100 
100 
97 
99 
97 
92 
46 
46 
79 
42 
37 
72 
41 
31 

4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 



7 
7 

7 
6 
2 

28 
28 
20 
28 
27 
27 
27 
19 

8 
20 
16 

4 
11 



40 
20 
20 
39 



20 
38 
IS 
20 
37 
19 
18 
34 
is 
16 
31 
IS 
13 
32 
17 
15 
21 
15 

6 
12 
11 

1 



Percentages. 



3 
1 

3 
8 
5 

3 
21 

9 

12 
28 
10 

IS 



19 

5 

14 

28 

9 

19 



Suc- 
cesses. 



100 
100 
100 

97 

99 

97 

92 

90+ 

934+ 

79 

82+ 

754 

72 

80+ 

63+ 

100 
75 
50 
75 
75 
50 
75 
75 



100 

100 

100 

100 
874 
87J 
874 
75 
25 

100 
100 

93- 
100 

90+ 

96+ 

96+ 

95 
100 

71+ 

80 

50 

39+ 

40 

37i 

100 
100 
100 

974 

95 
100 

95 

90 
100 

924 

95 
90 
85 
90 
80 
77* 
90 
65 
80 
85 
75 
52i 
75 
30 
30 
55 
5 



Fail- 
ures. 



3 

1 

3 

8 

94+ 

6+ 
21 

17|+ 
244 
28 

194+ 
36J+ 



25 
50 
25 
25 
50 
25 
25 
100 



12J 

124 
124 
25 
75 



7+ 



34+ 
3i+ 
34+ 
5 



284+ 

20 

50 

60 4 + 

60 

62J 



24 
5 



5 
10 



74 

5 
10 
15 

10 

20 

22J 

10 

35 

20 

15 

25 

474 

25 

70 

70 

45 

95 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 
Table 3. — Results of addition tests — Continued. 



19 







Number successful. 




Percentages. 




Test. 




Num- 
ber 
failing. 




Group. 


First 
trial. 


Second 
trial. 


Total. 


Suc- 
cesses. 


Fail- 
ures. 




(3+4 


38 
10 
28 
40 
10 
30 
31 

7 
24 
29 

9 
20 
36 
10 
26 
35 
10 
25 
21 

6 
15 
17 

4 
13 

7 

3 

4 


2 
2 

7 
2 
5 
8 
1 
7 
2 

2 
3 

3 

16 

4 

12 

16 

4 

12 
8 
2 
6 


40 
10 
30 
40 
10 
30 
38 

9 
29 
37 
10 
27 
38 
10 
28 
38 
10 
28 
37 
10 
27 
33 

8 
25 
15 

5 
10 


2 
1 
1 
3 

3 

2 

2 
2 

2 
3 

3 

7 
2 
5 

25 
5 

20 


100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 
95 
90 
96<f 
92| 

100 
90 
95 

100 
93J 
95 

100 
93J 
92| 

100 
90 
82i 
80 
83* 
37J 
50 
33J 






Men 






Women 

6+6 






Men 

Women 

6+7 


5 




Men 

Women 

8+6 


10 
3J 

7£ 




Men 

Women 

15+15 


10 
5 


Slav illiterate (40 examined, 10 
men and 30 women). 


Men 

Women 

15+16 

Men 


61 
5 




Women 

2+3+4 

Men 


6| 
71 




Women 

2+4+6+8 

Men 

Women 

17+13+9+4 

Men 


10 

17i 

20 

161 

62i 

50 




Women 


66§ 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

With the exception of the literate 15 and above group, 75 per cent 
of the members of all literate groups succeeded with all the tests in 
addition. 

Only 72 per cent of the members of the literate 15 and above group 
and 73 J per cent of the girls of the literate 12-14 group succeeded in 
the 17+13 + 9 + 4 test. There was little if any trouble with the 
other tests in addition. The literate children from 9 to 11 years of 
age excelled their elders. 

Among the illiterates less than 75 per cent of some groups suc- 
ceeded in executing certain tests in addition, as follows: 

Ages 10-11: 17+13+9+4, 15+16, 6+7. 

Ages 12-14: 17+13+9+4. 

Agesl5-above: 17+13+9+4. 

Ages 15-above (women): 17+13+9+4, 2+4+6+8. 

Italian: 17+13+9+4. 

Italian women: 17+13+9+4, 2+4+6+8, 15+16. 

Slav: 17+13+9+4. 

It must be remembered that in almost every group that failed 
were to be found individuals who performed every example. 

DISCUSSION. 

Addition is one of the most useful tests in the mental examination 
of arriving immigrants. It is employed at the line inspection, at 
the secondary examination, and in the final certification tests. 



20 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

In textbooks on experimental psychology simple tests in addition 
are put down as tests in controlled association. In every combination 
of digits the mental associative processes bring about a definite 
result, the sum. Among arriving aliens addition is a test in memory 
or reasoning, depending upon the character of the example and the 
previous arithmetical accomplishment of the individual. The series 
of tests here given are of two kinds. An individual can answer one 
set by giving forth fixed associations, while the other set can be 
solved only after associative activity combined with analytic and 
synthetic thinking. In performing the first set of tests a memory 
feat is executed. In performing the second set reasoning ability is 
displayed. 

Owing to formal training in school and consequent mathemetical 
thinking in the practical affairs of every-day life, the literate immi- 
grant has formed many fixed associations in regard to numbers. 
Hence in answering these questions in addition many literate immi- 
grants reply almost immediately by giving forth their fixed associa- 
tions — such as 9 and 7 are 16. It is with them a simple matter of 
recall. On the other hand, the illiterate immigrant may have a few 
fixed associations composed of unit digits only. He has not had an 
arithmetical foundation. Hence, when he meets the example 
15 + 15, an example composed of digits above the unit series, he is 
facing a real problem. Perhaps it is the first time in his life that 
such a difficult question has been asked him. In order to solve it 
he must consider the component digits, perhaps breaking up each 
into smaller digits. He must call upon his limited supply of fixed 
associations, or in their absence he must use his fingers in computing. 
He is compelled to retain certain steps in the process and make com- 
binations with these steps. He must keep continually in mind the 
original numbers and the purpose for which he is working. He will 
succeed only after much striving, which is often evinced by a long 
pause, a facial expression of effort, and a sigh of relief when the goal 
is reached. When he has answered 30 he has accomplished a feat 
in reasoning. It may be just as difficult for an illiterate to find the 
sum of 15 and 15 as it is for a literate to find the sum of 17, 13, 9, and 4, 
the mental processes in the two instances being essentially the same. 

It has been possible during the experiment to understand the exact 
mental process of certain illiterate immigrants because they mumbled 
the various steps in a low or whispered voice. For example: 

In solving 15 + 15 one said, "20 and 20, 40; take away 5, 35; take 
away 5, 30, 80." 

In computing 8 + 6 one said, "8 and 2, 10; 10 and 2, 12; and 2, 

14, 14." 

In attempting to solve 17+13 + 9 + 4 one immigrant in a whisper 
handled the first part of the problem this way: " 17 and 13, 17 and 13, 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 21 

17 is 15 and 2, 13 is 5, 5 and 3, 15 20 25 28, 28." In this case he 
forgot to add the 2 from his first analysis. 

Some other peculiarities in the mental mechanism noticed in this 
test are of interest and will be mentioned. 

In adding 17, 13, 9, and 4 several immigrants forgot to add the 9 
and responded by saying 34. Others forgot the 4 and responded by 
saying 39. A common mistake in adding 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 was to lose the 
6 and reply 14. A number of immigrants who failed to add 15 + 15 
and 15 + 16 succeeded in adding 2 + 3 + 4. 

When asked how much are 3 and 4, a bright Norwegian responded 
12. He was then asked how many are 3 apples and 4 apples, to 
which he replied 12. He succeeded in getting all the other additions 
tests, even getting 17 + 13 + 9 + 4 with ease. In the first trial he 
evidently assumed that 3X4 was wanted and held on to this faulty 
assumption in the second trial. Mistakes are often caused by 
similar false assumptions on the part of the normal subject. 

A number who failed at trial 2 succeeded at a third trial, but the 
result of such trial was not officially recorded. 

Sometimes, after a subject has been doing well, he suddenly begins 
to do poorly. Some accidental circumstance has occurred or some 
peculiar motive has influenced his action. In some of these cases it 
is believed that the immigrant feels that he is in for a long examina- 
tion and wishes to terminate it by slipshod answers. 

As above pointed out all immigrants, even illiterates, have a few 
fixed associations — that is, they have stored away in their minds the 
various sums of unit digits and the sums of unit digits taken twice. 
In other words they will know that 2 and 3 are 5, 4 and 5 are 9, as well 
as that 7 and 7 are 14, 10 and 10 are 20. Some illiterates have fixed 
associations established between an odd and even figure, as 9 and 8 
are 17. The majority of illiterate immigrants, however, arrive at 
these last sums by the process of inference, which in this case is 
really an elementary reasoning process. It may be thus demon- 
strated in the example of 6 + 7 : 

6+6 is 12. 

6+7 is 1 more than 6+6. 

Therefore, 6+7 is 13. 

Even though excited, it is usually easier for an immigrant who 
possesses fixed associations to make the correct response in simple 
sums than to do otherwise. 

In these tests some who are unfamiliar with addition immediately 
grasp the idea as to what is wanted and set about the task by counting 
on their fingers. These particular individuals have no fixed associa- 
tions upon which to call, hence they resort to another form of pur- 
posive thinking. Some illiterate immigrants, having a limited supply 
of fixed associations and capable of making inferences theiefrom, 



22 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

resort to counting on their fingers because of a disturbed emotional 
state at the time of the examination. 

The fact that an immigrant, especially if he be an illiterate, has a 
large number of fixed arithmetical associations — that is, adds 
readily — augurs well for him, because it shows that his mind has been 
developing in the past. 

It is important to emphasize that often a single examination does 
not show what the immigrant really knows. At times, in order to 
ascertain the mental ability along a certain line, two or more exami- 
nations have to be made at widely separated intervals. Further- 
more, the second part of a single examination often throws true 
light upon a mental function which the first part failed to show. In 
this connection may be cited the cases * of two Russian children, 
brother and sister, ages 10 and 11, respectively. Neither they nor 
their relatives or friends had ever been to school; in fact, there was 
not a school in the village from which they came. In the adding tests 
they had difficulty in counting with their fingers. However, 5 
minutes later, they did comparatively well with the problems which 
involved the double process of addition and multiplication. In 
these cases the examples in addition appear to have prepared them 
for the more difficult task of problem solving. Both of these immi- 
grants had excellent correlations in the other tests. 

Very exceptionally intelligent immigrants who have stood well 
throughout the examination have no number associations. In striv- 
ing to obtain the sum of two or three digits these particular individ- 

1 The records of these two cases are given below. A indicates success at first trial, A 2 success at second 
trial, a numeral the particular wrong reply given, and O a "give up." A semicolon separates records of 
the first and second trials. In the case of problems the time of performance, in seconds, is indicated. 



Russian (male, 10, no schooling): 



Addition. 



3+4=6; A 2 8+ 6= 0; 900 2+ 3+4=7; 7 

6+6. A 15+15=20; A 2 2+ 4+6+8] . 

~ „ ~ mot attempted. 

6+7=19; 8 15+16=50; O 17+13+9+4J F 

Problems (5 minutes later). 
How many legs have—? 

Horse+man+chicken. A (13 seconds). 

2 horses+2 men. A (18 seconds). 

3 horses+2 men= 12 (33 seconds). A 2 (40 seconds). 
Horse+2 men+3 chickens=12 (55) seconds; 12 (35 seconds). 

Russian (female, 11, no schooling): 

Addition. 



3+4. A 




8+ 6=13; A 2 


2+ 3+4=6; A 2 


6+6=10; 


13 


15+15=25; 27 


2+ 4+6+8. A 


6+7=10; 


14 


15+16= O 


17+13+9+4=9 



Problems (5 minutes later). 
How many legs have — ? 

Horse+man+chicken. A (10 seconds). 
2 horses+2 men. A (18 seconds). 

2 horses+2 men. A (18 seconds). 

3 horses+2 men. A (20 seconds). 

Horse+2 men+3 chiekens= 12 (33 seconds); A 2 (18 seconds) 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 



23 



uals will make a good guess; they will come close even if they do 
not arrive at the exact sum — that is, they will show good judgment 
even in their incorrect replies. 

From the above discussion it is clear that what is a good response 
for one immigrant may be a bad response for another of the same age. 
The classification of every reply depends upon many factors. It 
depends upon the previous and present physical condition of the 
subject; upon his emotional state and other psychic states at the 
time of the examination; upon his race, schooling, training, and 
other opportunities; upon the examination room, number of times 
examined, method of examiner, and upon other factors. An immi- 
grant's reply can not be accurately analyzed or graded by a rigid 
standard. It must be considered and weighed in conjunction with 
many other factors, and for this the judgment of a trained and expe- 
rienced diagnostician is needed. 

SUBTRACTION. 

The interpreter said to each subject: "If from 6 apples 2 apples 
are taken away, how many remain V He immediately repeated the 
question. If the immigrant gave an incorrect answer, the question 
was again asked twice in the same way. 

From the following table it may be seen that 75 per cent of every 
group was able to subtract 2 concrete objects from 6 and 5 from 12. 

Table 4. — Results of subtraction tests. 



Group. 



Literate: 

9-11 

Hebrew, 9-11 

12-14 

15-above 

Illiterate: 

10-11 

12-14 

15-above 

Italian 

Men 

Women . . 
Slav 

Men 

Women.. 



12 
25 
37 

100 



29 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 



Subtracting 2 apple? from 6 apples. 



Number successful. 



12 

25 

37 

100 



28 
36 
17 
19 
40 
10 
30 






12 

25 

37 

100 



29 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 



.3 

•a 



Percentages, 



100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



Subtracting 5 apples from 12 apples. 



Number successful. 



20 

28 



2 
6 

25 
20 
IS 

8 
20 

6 
20 



ti'u 

CO 



12 
25 
34 
99 

3 

7 
28 
M 
19 
IS 
35 

10 

25 



Percentages. 



100 
100 

91. H 

99 

75 
87 j 

96.V + 
85" 
95 
75 
87£ 
100 
83£ 



C3 



8+ 
1 

25 
I2i 

3 + 
15 

5 
25 
12} 



io§ 



DIVISION. 

Each immigrant was asked: "If 20 apples are divided equally 
among 4 persons, how many apples does each person receive?" As 
in other arithmetical tests, the question was given twice at each of 
2 trials. The results follow. 



24 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Table 5. — Results of division test {20 apples divided among 4 persons). 





Number 
exam- 
ined. 


Number succeeding. 


Number 
failing. 


Percentages. 


Group. 


First 
trial. 


Second 
trial. 


Total. 


Successes. 


Failures. 


Literate: 

9-11 


12 

25 

37 

100 

4 
8 
29 
21 
8 
40 
20 
20 
40 
10 
30 


10 
23 
32 

87 

3 

6 

25 

21 

4 
32 
18 
14 
30 
10 
20 


2 
1 
3 

9 

1 
2 
2 


12 
24 
35 
96 

4 

8 

27 
21 

6 
38 
19 
19 
35 
10 
25 




100 
96 

96 

100 
100 

93 + 
100 

75 

95 

95 

95 

m 

100' 
83^ 




Hebrew, 9-11 


1 

2 
4 


4 


12-14 


5 + 
4 


15-above 


Illiterate: 

10-11 




12-14 






15-above 


2 


Ci + 


Men 


Women 


2 
6 
1 
5 

5 


2 
2 
1 
1 
5 


25 


Italian 


5 


Men 

Women 

Slav 

Men 


5 

5 

12J 


Women 


5 


5 


161 



From this table it may be seen that at least 75 per cent of every 
group or subgroup succeeded with this test. The two groups, 
illiterate 10-11 and illiterate 12-14, from whom would be theoretically 
expected the poorest record, made perfect scores. The test shows 
that division is a more infrequent arithmetical process among immi- 
grants than either addition or subtraction. In many borderline 
oases that are hard to dispose of, it is believed that the ability to 
divide and to know when to divide, shown by repeated demonstra- 
tions, favors the supposition that the immigrant subject possesses 
to a considerable extent the power for abstract thinking. 

PROBLEMS. 

Each immigrant was asked to solve mentally eight arithmetical 
problems, seven of which were arranged supposedly in an order of 
increasing difficulty. Of the problems three were simple and five, 
involving two fundamental operations, complex. The problems 
and the order in which they were given are as follows : 

(1) If you have 20 cents and you spend 3 cents for bread and 4 cents for meat, how 
many cents will you have left? 
How many legs have — 

(2) 1 horse. (6) 2 horses + 2 men. 

(3) 2 horses. (7) 3 horses + 2 men. 

(4) 3 horses. (8) horse + 2 men + 3 chickens. 

(5) horse + man + chicken. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

If the subject at first failed to obtain the correct answer, a second 
trial was given, the interpreter repeating the question at both trials. 
In the case of problems 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8, time was taken with stop 
watch from the instant the interpreter said the last word until the 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 



25 



immigrant responded. Sometimes the immigrant questioned the 
examiner after the problem had been propounded. Such question- 
ing was included in the immigrant's performance time. This was 
one cause for delay in the solution of the problems. 

RESULTS. 

The following table gives the results of these tests : 

Table 6. — Results of problems. 



Group. 



Problem. 



Number 
succeeding. 



Percentages. 



Time required for success. 



First trial. 1 



a 






C 4) 



Second 
trial, i 



< 



o3 © 
© £ 



Literate, 9-11 
examined). 



(12 



Hebrew literate, 9- 
11 (25 examined). 



Literate, 12-14 (37 
examined). 



Literate, 15 and 
above (100 exam- 
ined). 



Illiterate, 10-11 (4 
examined). 



f20-(3+4) 

1 horse 3 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses 4-2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 

'20-(3+4) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 

f20-(3+4) 

Boys (18) 

Girls (19) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

.Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 

f20-(3+4) 

Men (51) 

Women (49) 

1 horse ! 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 

20-(3+4) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 



5 


4 


9 


3 


75 


12 




12 


....100 


12 




12 




100 


12 




12 


.. 


100 


11 


1 


12 




100 


10 


2 


12 




100 


9 


3 


12 




100 


10 


2 


12 


.... 


100 


22 




22 


3 


88 


25 




25 




100 


25 




25 




100 


24 


1 


25 




100 


19 


6 


25 




100 


21 


4 


25 




100 


21 


4 


25 




100 


17 


7 


24 


1 


96 


30 


4 


34 


3 


9U+ 


16 


1 


17 


1 


94+ 


14 


3 


17 


2 


89+ 


37 




37 




100 


37 




37 




100 


35 


2 


37 




100 


33 


3 


36 


1 


97+ 


28 


6 


34 


3 


92- 


30 


6 


36 


1 


97+ 


25 


9 


34 


3 


92- 


79 


16 


95 


5 


95 


43 


6 


49 


2 


96+ 


36 


10 


46 


3 


94- 


100 


• • . . 


100 




100 


100 




100 




100 


99 


1 


100 




100 


89 


10 


99 


1 


99 


89 


10 


99 


1 


99 


87 


12 


99 


1 


99 


67 


23 


90 


10 


90 




3 


3 
4 


1 


75 
100 


4 


4 




4 




100 


4 




4 




100 


4 




4 




100 


4 




4 




100 


3 


i 


4 




100 


2 


1 


3 


i 


75 



25 



Sees. 
22 



12 



8+ 

5J+ 

10J+ 



2|+ 

8+ 

2§+ 

8+ 

5 

3§+ 
6+ 



1 

1 

1 

10 

25 



25 



Sees. 

20-110 



Sees. 
20 



Sees. 
5-34 



10 

9 



0-15 
0-18 
0-30 
0-18 

0-32 



44 

& 10£ 

5 

21* 



5 2-19 

0-10 

5 0-43 



0-14 
0-8 
0-9 

0-14 

0-24 
0-24 
0-22 



If 

5J 

5 
12 

26§ 
6 55 
17 



0-5 

3-9 

1-10 

0-24 

0-55 



0-45 



0-20 
0-28 
0-22 



14 
9 
5 



0-22 
0-22 
0-20 



0-50 
0-50 
0-22 



12 

6 

16 



0-72 
0-21 
0-72 



0-27 

0-8 

0-11 

0-24 



0-7 
0-16 
2-27 
0-20 



13J 
14 

17 



0-13 

2-18 

6-20 

6 4-30 



«40 
«18 



i Only those who succeeded in the trial are considered. 

2 "0" stands for "instantaneous." 

3 Problem was: "How many legs have — ? "supplying the words given in this table. 
* 1 case. 

s 2 cases. 



26 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Table 6. — Results of problems — Continued. 



Group. 



Illiterate, 12-14 (8 
examined). 



Illiterate, 15 and 
above (29 exam- 
ined). 



Italian illiterate (40 
examined). 



Slav illiterate (40 
examined). 



Problem. 



(20-(3+4) 

1 horse 5 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse + man + chicken 

2 horses+ 2 men 

3 horses+2men 

.Horse +2 men +3 chickens 

(20-(3+4) 

Men (21) 

Women(8) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse + man + chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 



(20-(3+4) 

Men (20) 

Women (20) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse + man + chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

.Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 

(20-(3+4) 

Men (10) 

Women (30) 

1 horse 

2 horses 

3 horses 

Horse+man+chicken 

2 horses+2 men 

3 horses+2 men 

Horse+2 men+3 chickens. 



Number 
succeeding. 



Pn 



3 
5 
2 
2 
11 

7 
2 
5 

"2 
2 



Percentages. Time required for success. 



3 621 
. 100" 
. 100 
. 100 
. 100 
. 100 

100 



65§ 

81- 

25 

100 

100 
96J 
96| 
96J 
93+ 
86+ 

67i 

85 

50 
100 
100 

95 

95 

95 

87* 

70 

75 

90 

70 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

92| 

90 



37, 



12* 



34i 

19+ 

75 



3* 
3| 

H 

6i+ 
13i+ 

321 
15" 
50 



5 

5 

5 

121 
30 

25 
10 
30 



10 



First trial. 



© 
to 

©.2 



Sees. 
26 



4 

11 
12 

3 
3 

20 



^ 1 

© 

£ S 

03 © 

*-< & 



Sees. 
17-41 



0-12 

0-8 

2-37 

5-25 

0-14 
0-14 



0-11 
0-15 
0-21 
0-40 

0-27 
0-27 
0-14 



4 2 i 
6£ 

7| 

19 
18 
20 



3 

101 
151 



0-15 
0-16 
0-21 
0-22 

0-75 
0-52 
0-75 



0-14 
0-18 
0-43 
0-48 



Second 
trial. 



© 

bo 

««' 

©.2 



Sees. 
21 



1(3 



29 

23 
35 
11 



6 
4\ 

12" 

14 



2 

5i 
5 

7 

16 
17 
15 



13 

27/ 



T3 
© - 
bo I 

a a 

«3 $ 

t~, © 
© £ 

s-s 



Sees. 
10-43 



1 15-17 



4-60 
1 11-35 



2-16 

2 3-6 

11-12 

0-44 

0-45 



0-45 



1-5 
0-15 

0-8 
2-15 

0-43 
6-40 
0-43 



1 0-6 
0-18 
0-27 
0-80 



1 2.cases. 



2 1 case. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 



Seventy-five per cent of every literate group succeeded in the 
problem 20 — (3+4). The immigrants in the older literate groups 
excelled those in the younger. The men and boys slightly excelled 
the girls. 

Among the illiterates, 75 per cent of the following groups or sub- 
groups succeeded: Rliterate 10-11, men of the illiterate 15 and above, 
men of the Italian illiterate, men of the Slav illiterate. Less than 75 per 
cent of the following groups or subgroups succeeded : Illiterate, 12-1^, 
women of the illiterate 15 and above, women of the Italian illiterate, 



ARITHMETICAL TESTS. 27 

women of the Slav illiterate. Hence the men excelled the women in 
this test. The women of the Slav illiterate group excelled the other 
women examined. 

The simple leg problems (2-4), which were merely tasks in multi- 
plication, were correctly answered by all literates and illiterates with 
the exception of 3, a Hebrew girl, age 17, and 2 Italian girls, ages 17 
and 19. 

The complex leg problems (5-8), involving the double operation 
of multiplication and addition, were well performed by all literate 
groups. Among the literate immigrants there were only 22 failures 
on the four problems. Seventy per cent of the Italian illiterate group 
succeeded on the Horse + 2 men + 3 chickens problem. Seventy-five 
per cent of the Italian illiterate group succeeded on the other three 
complex leg problems. Seventy-five per cent of all other illiterate 
groups succeeded in every complex leg problem. 

DISCUSSION. 

Problems similar to the complex ones used in these tests bring out 
reasoning ability and are therefore excellent tests to employ in the 
mental examination of susnected defectives among arriving immi- 
grants. 

When a complex problem is presented for mental solution, the 
sagacity of the normal immigrant enables him to look into the 
problem, analyze it, and select the proper method for its solution. 
His arithmetical acquisition then enables him to apply the method. 
An immigrant, however, may be sagacious — that is, able to select 
the proper method — but be unable to apply this method, or he may 
be able to apply a method but not able to select the correct method. 

In either case his reasoning ability is at fault. It is believed that 
sagacity is more often lacking in defective immigrants than is the 
ability to apply methods. An immigrant may give 12 or 14 as his 
answer to the problem 20 — (3 + 4). If such an answer be given 
after considerable pause, it may be strongly suspected that the 
immigrant selected the nroper method but made a slight mistake in 
applying it. 

Very often a normal immigrant who possesses both sagacity and 
learning fails in the solution of a problem because of some interposed 
factor, such as emotional disturbance. In order to say definitely, 
therefore, that an immigrant possesses subnormal reasoning ability, 
failure with problems should occur at successive examinations. 
Repetition of similar problems will also clear up doubtful points in 
regard to the subject's reasoning ability. 

In the 20 — (3 + 4) problem, the illiterate men excelled the women. 
Perhaps the practical affairs of life outside the home which the men 



28 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

experience and the emotionalism frequently noticed in women are 
partly accountable for the differences here exhibited. 1 

The complex leg problems involving the two fundamental opera- 
tions of multiplication and addition were solved by all but one group, 
regardless of age, sex, and race. It was frequently noticed in the 
solution of the leg problems that one or two failures were followed 
by a succession of correct responses. This indicated that the sub- 
ject's mind was being gradually prepared for a good performance. 
In this connection it is important to bear in mind that whenever an 
attempt is made to find the mental ability along a certain line, a pre- 
liminary practice or warming up should be indulged in before the 
test proper is applied. 

1 The problem 20— (3+4) was the first to be propounded. It is thought that if it had followed the leg prob- 
lems a much better result with it would have been obtained. It is also thought that if several of such 
problems had been propounded a better result would have been obtained. If similar problems had 
been propounded to the same immigrants on the following day no doubt more successful solutions would 
have been obtained. These suppositions are based upon experience gained in the routine mental ex- 
amination of arriving immigrants and the fact that in the present test a number who failed at two 
trials succeeded at a third trial not tabulated above. 



MEMORY TESTS (NONARITHMETICAL). 

REPORT. 

The Report Test 1 is composed of two parts, narrative and inter- 
rogatory. It was applied by exposing a picture of a village (Fig. 1) 
to the immigrant for a period of 20 seconds, immediately afterwards 
getting him to name as many details of the pjpture as he could recall 
and then questioning him in regard to his memory of the picture. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The immigrant was somewhat prepared for the test, as he had 
just previously performed the Visual Apprehension Test (see p. 32), 
which was similar in many ways. 

The interpreter said to the subject: 

The examiner is about to show you a picture, look well at it. Try to remember 
as many different objects in the picture as you can. 

The examiner then exposed the picture to the subject for a period 
of 20 seconds. As the picture during exposure faced the window, 
good light was thrown on it in every instance. 

Immediately after the exposure the subject mentioned the dif- 
ferent details which he had observed. This constituted the narrative 
and was carefully recorded on the examination chart. The subject 
was given plenty of time in which to recall what he had seen. 

When the picture had been taken away, the interrogatory, in the 
form of five questions, was then propounded. 

Two of the questions pertained to details that were in the picture. 
The third question permitted of several answers, while the last two 
questions referred to details not actually present. 

The questions of the interrogatory were as follows : 

(1) Did you see the church? 

(2) Did you see the steps? 

(3) Is the horse white? 

(4) Did you see the dog? 

(5) Did you see the man? 

The replies to these questions, usually in the form of "yes" or 
"no," were written opposite the questions on the examination chart. 

1 This test is a modified form of the Report Test described in Whipple, Guy Montrose: Manual of Mental 
and Physical Tests, 1911. 

29 



30 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



RESULTS. 



The results of this test, indicating the number of immigrants 
recalling a certain number of details, the number giving imaginary 




details, and the number making correct answers or mistakes in the 
interrogatory, are shown in the following table: 



MEMORY TESTS. 
Table 7. — Results of Report Test. 



31 



Group. 



Literate: 

9-11 

Hebrew, 9-11 
12-14— 

Boys 

Girls.... 
15-above — 

Men 

Women. 
Illiterate: 

10-11 

12-14 

15-above — 

Men 

Women . . 
Italian — 

Men 

Women . . 
Slav- 
Men 

Women . . 



Narrative. 



Number of aliens recalling 
different details of picture. 



12 
25 



18 1 
19.. 



511 

49 



211 

8 

20 
20 

io' 

30' 



2 3 



4 2 



3 

6 

2 
5 

8 

10 



Number of 

aliens naming 

imaginary 

objects. 






!::} 



1 1 
3 



4 1 

4 2 
i 

I 

2 1 

5 2 

4 1 

4| 7 



a a 



.a . 
.5 c 

03 -*— ■ 



Interrogatory. 



Number of 

aliens making 

mistakes. 



r 4 

113 

1 
1 

5 1 
3 

I 
2 
2 



3 

7 

6 

4 

20 
18 

1 

3 



3 
1 

4 . 
3 .. 

2 2 

2 1 



2.. 
3 1 



3 .. 

6 1 
11. - 

1 
7 



In the narrative the literate groups made a slightly better showing 
than the illiterates. Thirteen literate immigrants enumerated more 
than 10 details, while only 1 illiterate immigrant recalled more 
than 10 details. A number of immigrants injected imaginary 
objects into their narratives. 

The best scores were made by 1 boy of the literate 12-14- group, 
who scored 14 details, and by a woman of the literate 15 and above 
group, who scored 13 details. Two boys of the literate 12-1 4 group 
and 2 men of the literate 15 and above group each scored 12 details. 

The most striking fact learned from the interrogatory was that 
the majority of immigrants made mistakes in answering some of 
the 5 questions. Among the literates only 28 answered all 5 ques- 
tions correctly and among the illiterates only 7. 

DISCUSSION. 

Memory tests are legion, but they differ from one another in 
various respects. This test, in the main, may be classed as a test 
of recent memory. In instructing the subject in regard to this test 
and exposing the picture to him we see how his mind functionates 
in certain directions. Before the new picture is shown, the normal 
subject, of course, has his own store of images and fixed associations 
which will be of some assistance to him in performing the test. 



32 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Such combinations as rooster-hens, house-church, trees-grass-flowers, 
and similar series, are associations common to all. In order to 
succeed in this, as well as in other memory tests, the subject first 
of all must attend. While attending, he must make a number of 
distinct perceptions of the details of the picture before him. He 
then sees the connection between one percept and another. He 
forms certain associations between the various objects depicted. 
Perhaps he holds in consciousness the auditory-word-images which 
are symbols of the details. He may even articulate such words to 
himself. During the mental process he is said to be fixing or retain- 
ing the details. The process may not go on in the exact order here 
described, or the various phases may take place almost simulta- 
neously, or the act of attending may itself be accompanied by all 
of these phases combined; but something similar to this process 
does take place. 

Another factor is personal interest, which will cause the subject 
to select and retain certain details to the exclusion of others. 

When the immigrant is asked by the examiner to recall what he 
has retained, by reverse associative processes the retained images 
are serially brought into consciousness and expressed to the exami- 
ner in the form of suitable words. 

Perhaps the most striking results of this test at the first exami- 
nation among arriving immigrants were the very poor showing 
which was made and the fact that some of the brightest among 
them scored the smallest number of points. 1 When the Report 
Test, however, was applied for a second time to several immigrants, 
each one enumerated more details than he had at the first trial. 
The present investigation thus indicates that this test can be made 
serviceable in diagnostic work by repeating it, with the same or 
different pictures. After the subject has enumerated 6 or 8 details 
at the first trial he could be told that there are many others which 
could have been mentioned. A second trial would then throw 
some light on his learning power, and for this purpose the test could 
even be given a third time. Care must be exercised in selecting 
for the second trial, or even for the test proper, pictures the details 
of which are familiar to immigrants. 

VISUAL APPREHENSION. 

This test consisted in exposing a board containing 10 objects to 
the immigrant's view for a brief period and immediately recording 
the objects which he had seen. 

The immigrant was first prepared for the test by exposing to his 
view for a brief period a box containing a number of trinkets and 

1 It is thought that the mentally deficient immigrant would do almost as well as the normal on this 
particular test at the first trial. 




Fig. 2.— View of board used in Visual Apprehension Test, with objects fastened to it. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



33 



having him recall them. After this performance the interpreter 
said: 

I will now expose for a period of four seconds a board containing a number of objects, 
and I want to see how many of them you can recall, so look well. 

A board containing 10 objects (fig. 2) was then exposed for 4 
seconds, immediately after which the subject enumerated the objects 
he had perceived. 

The following table gives the results: 



Table 8. 


— Results of Visual Apprehension 


Test. 










03 

X 


Number of aliens recalling different objects 


Number of aliens recall- 




in test. 


ing imaginary objects. 


Group. 


as 


co 


CO 


co 


CO 


CO 


co 


co 








CO 


















+i 




.— 


-4-> 


-^ 


*^ 














o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


5 


o 


a 


o 


o 






a 


<D 


a> 


<o 


© 


a> 


a> 


<a 


<u 


as 


« 


9 


o> 


© 


<x> 




rQ 


Jo 


rO 


,o 


rQ' 


.a' 


fil 


,q' 


X2' 


,q' 


15 


s* 


,Q 


,Q 




3 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


O 


O 




fc 


Ci 


oo 


t- 


CD 


lO 


<* 


cc 


CM 


l-H 


o 


^H 


<N 


n 


"5 


Literate: 
































9-11 


12 
25 




2 


1 


1 

5 


1 

6 


2 

7 


2 
5 


.... 


2 
1 


1 


2 
5 








Hebrew 9-11 


2 


1 j 


12-14— 






























Boys 


18 
19 








3 

4 


4 
5 


8 
4 


1 
4 


1 
1 


1 


.... 


6 
6 


2 




Girls 






1 


1 j 


15-above— 












Men 


51 


1 
2 


4 
4 


9 
6 


9 
14 


14 
10 


8 
10 


2 
3 


3 


.... 


9 
13 


3 
3 


2 


Women 


49 


.... 


1 


Illiterate: 








10-11 


4 

8 










2 
4 


1 


1 












12-14 






1 


1 


1 


1 


.... 


2 


1 




15-above— 














Men 


21 






?, 


6 


4 


4 


1 


1 


3 




3 




1 


Women 


8 






1 


1 


1 




3 


1 




1 


1 








Italian — 












Men 


20 
20 






3 


4 
5 


5 

4 


5 
1 


"l 


2 
2 






4 
3 


1 
3 






Women 


1 










1 




Slav- 












Men 


10 
30 




1 


1 

1 


"4" 


2 
11 


4 

7 


1 

4 


1 
2 






3 

7 


1 

1 






Women 


1 


.... 

















The only statement that will be made in regard to the test is that 
many intelligent immigrants, as shown by their excellent correlations 
in other tests, enumerated only 2 or 3 objects, while many less intel- 
ligent ones enumerated 5 or 6 objects. 

REPEATING DIGITS. 

The immigrants were tested as to the number of digits they could 
repeat in the exact order in which given. 

The following numbers were used in this experiment: 382, 
497; 3184,1768; 79381, 27493; 851634, 147839; 9218743, 1396485; 
21763859. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The immigrant was first tested with numbers of three digits. As 
soon as he succeeded in repeating a given series of digits he was 
tested with the next higher series, different digits or a different order 
being used at each trial. Four trials were allowed to repeat any 
given number of digits. 
1970°— 17 3 



34 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



At the first trial the interpreter would pronounce each digit slowly, 
allowing the same period of time to intervene between the pronun- 
ciation of each digit. This might be represented as follows: 

7 9 3 8 1 

In the event of failure, the interpreter would give the same number 

but in a reverse order, pronouncing it rapidly in two parts (second 

trial), thus: 

18 397 

The interpreter would give the third trial by separating the test 

number into another two-part arrangement and by pronouncing it 

rapidly, thus: 

274 93 

In the event of failure, the interpreter would give the last trial 
by articulating the number in three distinct parts, thus: 

39 47 2 
RESULTS. 

Every effort was made to see if the subject could repeat at least 
five digits. Those who repeated five or more and those who repeated 
less than five are shown in the following table of results, with the 
percentage of those who succeeded: 

Table 9. — Results of Repeating Digits Test. 





Number 
exam- 
ined. 


Number of aliens repeating different numbers or 
series of digits. 


Percent- 


Group. 


5 or more digits. 


4 or less digits. 


age who 
repeated 
5 digits 
or more. 




8 digits. 


7 digits. 6 digits. 


5 digits. 


4 digits. 


3 digits. 


Literate: 

9-11 


12 

25 

13(3 

50 

147 

4 
8 

21 

8 

20 
i 19 

10 
30 


1 
G 
3 

4 
9 


5 

7 
13 

13 
10 


1 

8 

11 

18 
10 

1 
4 

4 
3 

6 
4 

3 
5 


4 
3 

8 

9 
10 

2 
1 

11 
3 

9 
4 

4 
13 


1 

1 
1 

5 
2 

1 
1 

2 
2 

5 

8 

2 

7 


1 
1 


91 1 


Hebrew 9-11 


96 


12-14 


97+ 


15-above — 

Men 


88 


Women 


95$+ 


Illiterate: 

10-11 


75 


12-14 


1 


2 
3 


87j 


15-above — 

Men 


9©j 


Women 


75 


Italian — 

Men 






75 


Women 


1 
1 


2 

4 


52 J + 


Slav- 
Men 


80 


Women 


76g 







i Number recorded is given. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 



Seventy-five per cent of all the groups were able to repeat at least 
5 digits. 



MEMORY TESTS. 35 

The women of the Italian illiterate group constituted the only sub- 
group which fell below the 75 per cent mark. 

The ability to repeat digits was more marked amohg the literates 
than among the illiterates. 

Among the illiterates the men slightly excelled the women in their 
ability to repeat at least 5 digits. 

Above the age of 9, there is practically no age difference in the 
ability to perform this test in arriving immigrants. 

DISCUSSION. 

This test is classified as one of rote memory. Familiarity with 
digits is certainly a necessary requisite in order to perform it well. 
A subject who has never been to school and who seldom uses figures 
is handicapped in its performance. It has been the experience of 
those examining arriving immigrants to see subjects who could not 
repeat 5 digits, but who could repeat the names of 5 objects in the 
exact order in which they were pronounced by the examiner. 

Practice in this as well as in other tests at times enables an immi- 
grant to improve his score. Those who could only repeat 4 digits 
upon arrival have been found to repeat 5 or 6 digits at a second or 
third examination. 

In many foreign languages each digit is composed of two or more 
syllables. Consequently we would expect a comparatively poor 
showing in this test among non-English speaking aliens. There are 
2, 3, and 4 syllables in the Lithuanian digits and we find a corre- 
spondingly poor showing among them in the test. It has been 
observed that English-speaking immigrants, as a rule, can repeat 7 

digits. 

STORY. 

The Story Test consisted in the immigrant telling a story after it 
had twice been read to him. The Lincoln pig story, 1 with "the 
king" substituted for Mr. Lincoln, was used in this experiment in 
order to test the immigrant's logical memory or his memory for 
sequence and related ideas. It was also thought that other inter- 
esting facts in connection with immigrant psychology would be 
brought out by such a test. 

The story was as follows : 

One day the king was out riding. As he passed along the road, he saw a pig 
sinking into a mudhole. Poor piggy would climb part way up the slippery bank, 
then down he would fall again. "I suppose I should get down and help that pig," 
thought the king, "but I have on my new suit, and it will be quite spoiled if I do so. 
I think I will let him get out the best way he can. ' ' He rode on. When nearly 2 
miles away, he turned and came back. Not minding the new clothes, he stooped, 
and taking piggy in his arms, he dragged him out of the mud. The new suit was 
quite spoiled, but the king said he had taken a pain out of his mind. 



i Given in Clyde and Wallace: Through the Year, book 2. This story was used in preference to other 
stories because the average peasant is acquainted with the different details that make up the story. 



36 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The interpreter informed the subject that he was to listen atten- 
tively so that he could recall as much of the story as possible. The 
interpreter then read the story slowly twice in succession. At the 
conclusion of the second reading, the immigrant recited the story in 
his own language. The interpreter immediately translated it, idea 
by idea, and the examiner quickly wrote the reproduction on the 
immigrant's examination chart. 

For the purpose of grading, the story was divided into the follow- 
ing ideas, each of which was valued at one point: 

1. King out riding — horseback. 

2. Pig in mudhole — mud — hole — water hole. 

3. Climb up and fall back — trying to get out — save himself. 

4. Like to help pig — save pig. 

5. New suit. 

6. Will be spoiled — it will be dirtied — does not like to dirty clothes. 

7. Let him get out best way he can — let him save himself — leave him alone. 

8. He rode on — continued his journey — kept on his way. 

9. Two miles. 

10. Returned. 

11. Not minding clothes. 

12. Pig in arms. 

13. Dragged him out — rescued him — saved it. 

14. Suit spoiled — covered with mud — all dirtied. 

15. King said. 

16. Took pain out of mind — feel easier in mind — weight from my mind — took a 
thought out of my mind — took a weight out of my head — weight off my shoulders. 

In addition to one point for each of these 16 ideas, 4 points were 
allowed whenever the essential theme — " dragged the pig out of 
the mud and took a pain out of his mind" — was expressed. When- 
ever the subject mentioned an idea that was not expressed but was 
implied in the original story, it was not counted against him; but if 
two such implications occurred, one point was subtracted from his 
total score. One point was subtracted for each false idea. Minus 
quantities were not used (1 — 3 being scored as 0). A perfect story 
would therefore be represented by the equation: 

16 + 4-0 = 20. 

These rules were followed as closely as possible, and even then it is 
conceded that some stories were hard to grade accurately. It is 
believed, however, that on the whole the total score in each case 
is a fair representation of what was accomplished. 

SPECIMENS OF IMMIGRANTS' REPRODUCTIONS. 

Specimen reproductions are given below, each one being chosen to 
bring out different points of psychological interest. A perpendicular 
line follows each correct idea; a colon follows each idea that is false 



MEMORY TESTS. 37 

or imaginary; and a colon with the figure one-half (:}) follows the 
expression of an idea which was merely implied in the original story. 
The stories are given in the exact words of the interpreter, who was 
advised to give as literal a translation as possible. 

The king once went horseback riding j in the road he saw a pig in a mud hole | at 
first he thought of helping the pig | and looked at his good clothes | and went on | he 
rode on for 2 miles | and returned | didn't look at his new clothes | but took the pig 
in his arms | pulled it out | although he soiled his clothes | he felt easier in his mind | . 
(Russian No. 10. Score, 12+4-0=16.) 

The king was riding | the pig was in the mud hole | he wanted to save it | but he 
did not want to soil his clothes | he rode on for 2 miles | and returned | he didn't 
look at his clothes | dragged the pig out | soiled his clothes | when he rode farther 
on (:£) he felt easier in his mind | . (Ruthenian No. 21. Score, 10+4-0=14.) 

The pig that was in the mud hole — and the man who was there with the pig and the 
chickens (:). (Spanish No. 13. Score, 1+0-1=0.) 

The king was going for a ride | and he saw a pig, the pig slid and fell into the 
hole | the king said "I ought to get him out" | but my clothes are new | then the king 
got him out of the hole | and spoilt his clothes | that's all. (Syrian Arabian No. 1. 
Score, 6+0-0=6.) 

I don't understand. You are reading something about a Christian and animal 
on the earth. (Spanish No. 18. Score, 0+0-0=0.) 

The king who had been out riding | loaned himself in going to save that poor pig | 
that was floundering in the mud | the pig showed its thankfulness to the king for having 
saved his life (:) the king said "it is all right (:) it is the grace of God I have come to 
get you out (:)." (Spanish No. 7. Score, 3+0—3=0.) 

There was once a king and there was a pig and he scratched up his legs ( :) and he 
was wallowing in the mud | after that he jumped in the mud (:) after 2 miles | he 
returned | he caught him up and threw him in the mud (:) then his clothes were 
completely covered with mud | . (Italian No. 77. Score, 4+0 — 3=1.) 

One day a king was out riding on horseback | he saw a pig in a mud hole | he said 
he would try to take him out but | that he had a good suit of clothes | he said he rode 
up the road 2 miles | he turned back again | on his way back he saw the pig trying 
to get out of the mud hole ( :^) he came down off his horse ( :|) took the pig out of the 
mud hole | dirtied his new suit of clothes | he had a pain( :) that is all I know. (Irish 
No. 1. Score, 10+0-2=8.) 

Pig fell down the hole when he tried to get up again. (Norway No. 4. Score, 
1+0-0=1.) 

One day there was a gentleman, a king on horseback | he saw a pig while passing 
on the roadside who was in a well filled with mud | he wanted to save the pig | but 
he had on his Sunday clothes | and he did not want to dirty them | he then went 
off | 2 miles | and returned | in order to save the pig he took him out | and he dirtied 
his suit | and he took it with him (:). (Italian No. 68. Score, 10+0—1=9.) 

A man was riding horseback | while through the woods he met a pig, he went after 
that 2 miles distant | he returned and pulled the pig out | with his hands | saying 
that it weighed very much (:) he ruined his suit | I don't remember any more, I 
would understand it better if it were in Greek. (Spoke in French.) (Greek No. 1. 
Score, 5+0-1=4.) 

This man was afraid that the poor animal would die in that place ( :) quickness he 
thought of his new suit and the pig he would not mind to save. He saved the pig's 
life | but I do not know whether he did this for his own sake or on account of the value 
of the pig. If he would keep it. It might have been that he saved the pig for its 
own sake or also for the sake of him who pulled him out. (Spaniard No. 1. Score, 
1+0-1=0.) 



38 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



The king was doing it (:) He was digging a piece of beans. (Italian No. 38. Score, 
0+0-2=0. 

The king, dirtying clothes | 100 meters (:) he came back. (Note: Much straining 
and difficulty in finding suitable words with which to express himself.) (Italian 
No. 34. Score, 1+0-1=0.) 

The king came on horseback | saw the pig in the mud that was drowning j he then 
got down pulled the pig out | in his arms | and saved the pig 's life like a good Chris- 
tian (:) (Italian No. 33. Score, 4+0-1=3.) 

One day the king was passing in the road, he met a pig in mudhole | trying to get 
out with his feet | pig wants help (:|) king answers (:) how can I help you? (:) I have 
new suit | the king went away | pig continued to demand help ( :) the king after going 
a distance of 2 miles | he says I don 't care if I have a new suit I am going to help 
that poor pig (:|) the king's new suit was covered with mud | that's all. (Italian 
No. 19. Score, 6+0-3=3.) 

RESULTS. 



The results of this test were as follows : 

Table 10. — Remits of Story Test. 





a 


Number scoring 15 


Number scoring 


Number scoring less than 10 




X 


points or more. 


from 10 to 14 points. 


points. 


Group. 


to 


CO 


CO 






co 


CO 


CO 


CO 


co 


. 




























+B 






































a 


Jti 
"o 


d 
'o 


d 
o 


a 
'o 


d 
"o 


d 
'o 


.a 

o 


d 


.a 

O 


.3 

o 


d 


.a 


B 


.a 


d 


d 


a 


.a 


.3 


.a 




ft 

05 


ft 

00 


ft 


ft 

CO 


ft 


ft 


ft 

CO 


ft 


ft 


ft 

o 


o 
ft 


o 
ft 


o 
ft 


a 


o 
ft 


o 
ft 


o 

ft 


o 
ft 


o 

ft 


o 
ft 
























at 


oo 


t^ 


CO 


m 


•* 


ec 


CN 


1-1 


o 


Literate: 






























9-11 


12 
25 
37 

'97 




1 

3 
3 

6 


1 

6 

4 

14 


2 
5 

6 

7 


1 
1 

2 
10 


1 

3 
1 

10 






1 
1 
1 

3 






2 




1 


... 


1 






1 


Hebrew 9-11 


3 


1 


1 


1 
2 
2 






12-14 


1 
1 


1 

4 


2 


1 

4 


2 
5 


2 
2 


2* 


1 
6 


4 

3 


1 

4 


5 


15-above 


5 


3 


4 


Illiterate: 












































10-11 


4 

8 

126 
















1 


.... 


2 
.... 












1 










12-14 








2 
* 1 


.... 


1 
3 




2 
1 














1 


1 


15-above 








.... 


1 


5 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 


2 


'?, 


Italian — 










Men 


20 
119 






1 


.... 


1 


1 


1 








1 


1 

1 


1 
2 


1 


2 
2 


1 
1 


4 


T 


3 
3 


?, 


Women 










1 


7 


Slav- 




















Men 


10 
30 








2 
3 


2 
4 


2 

8 


1 
1 






1 
1 


2 

4 




















Women 








3 


1 


1 


... 


1 






1 






?, 













i Number recorded. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

The literate groups excelled the illiterate in this test. The children 
of the Hebrew literate 9-11 group made the best record. Seventeen 
out of 25 of them scored 15 points or more; 7 scored between 10 and 
14 points; and only 1, who made 9 points, fell into the lowest 
section. It will be noted that 10 literate immigrants considered 
normal scored nothing. 

Among the illiterates, 8 men and 21 women of the Slav illiterate 
group scored 10 points or more, while only 4 men and 2 women of the 
Italian illiterate group made 10 points or more. A number of the 
low records in the illiterate 15 and above group were made by Span- 
lards and Italians. Fourteen illiterates, 7 of whom were Italian 
women, scored points. 



MEMORY TESTS. 39 

Above the age of 9, the ability to render this story appears to be 
uninfluenced by age. 

DISCUSSION. 

This is undoubtedly a severe test and requires a higher degree of 
sustained attention than many other tests. In order to make a fair 
showing with it, the subject must be in a cooperating mood and not 
emotionally disturbed. Furthermore, among other requisites there 
must be fertility and control of language. It must be remembered 
also that one who has read stories, who has heard stories told, or who 
has lived in a "story atmosphere " is better able to cope with a test 
of this kind than one who has not had such advantages. Briefly, 
it may be said that the poor records obtained in this test were due 
to lack of experience, unfamiliarity with stories, and defects in the 
emotional field. Many of the narratives, especially by the members 
of the illiterate groups, showed a good deal of emotional coloring and 
contained erroneous ideas. In some cases of complete failure the 
alien temporarily assumed the "give up' 7 attitude, which is best 
understood by such phrases as "What's the use?" "Too much for 
me," "I am tired of playing." In other words, in these particular 
cases there existed a feeling of discouragement which resulted in a 
complete lack of cooperation. 

Many immigrants who made a low score on this test made excellent 

records on other tests and they impressed the examiner as being 

normal or average immigrants. Thus, while the rendering of a 

good story on the part of an immigrant is indicative of a good mental 

mechanism, the rendering of a poor story does not necessarily denote 

mental enfeeblement. 

CUBE TEST. 

The Cube Test, devised by Knox, of the Public Health Service, 
consists in the examiner touching four or five different cubes one 
after another in a definite order, immediately after which the subject 
strives to touch the same cubes in the same order. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

In touching the cubes a spool was used instead of a block, so as to 
draw the subject's attention from the exact way in which the cubes 
were struck and to the essential feature of the problem, the order in 
which the different cubes were touched by the examiner. A board 
containing openings for five cubes was used in this experiment. 

In figure 3 four cubes are represented. In the movement here 
depicted the examiner touches the cubes in the following order, 
14 23, the space representing a pause of one and one-half to two 
seconds. As the test was carried out, immediately the subject suc- 
ceeded with one movement, the examiner gave him another one, 



40 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



touching the blocks in a different order. The following movements 
were used in the Four-Cube Test, the space indicating an interval of 
from one and one-half to two seconds : 



First: 14 23 
Second: 13 42 



Third: 13 24 
Fourth: 42 31 



Fifth: 32 41 
Sixth: 24 13 



The execution of these six movements by examiner and subject 
ordinarily required from 40 to 60 seconds. 

The following four movements were used in the Five-Cube Test: 



First: 145 23 
Second: 24 135 



Third: 513 42 
Fourth: 435 21 



The only case in which two trials were allowed was in the first 
movement of the Four-Cube Test. This was done because many 




Fig. 3. — A movement of the Four-Cube Test, showing also how board may be used for Five-Cube Test. 

immigrants did not at first understand what was wanted of them. 
In touching the blocks the examiner always moved slowly; further- 
more, time to recover mentally from each movement was allowed the 
subject, especially if he were laboring under some kind of stress and 
performing the test with tremor and uncertainty. In spite of the 
fact that the test was performed early in the examination of each 
immigrant, after 10 to 20 minutes had been spent on other tests, 
several subjects were emotionally disturbed. In these cases this 
particular test was deferred to the end of the examination. 

When a wrong movement was made but immediately rectified, it 
was recorded as a success. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



41 



RESULTS. 

The results of these Cube Tests are given below: 

Table 11. — Results of Cube Tests. 







Four cube. 


Five cube. 




Number per- 




Number per- 




Number per- 




o 
a 








forming 4 




forming less 




forming 1 or 












movements 




than 4 move- 




more move- 




a 






•tf 


or more: 




ments. 




ments. 




'3 ^ 




Group. 


pi 














r! C " 








V} 


w 


CO 






73 


W 








09 


co , w ! 






is 






e3 


-*> 


-u 


-tJ 






-*-» 


+J 








+J 


H-> 


*j 


+j 






o *> 






X 


el 


fl 


PI 




CD 


PI 


el 


a 




CD 


PI 


fl 


PI 


a 




CD 


~> 


CD 






o 


O 


Cb 




tx> 


CD 


o> 


cd 




bX> 


CD 


o 


CD 


<u 




So 


o 


bo 




In 


a 


a 


a 




c3 


a 


a 


a 




C8 


a 


a 


a 


a 




9 


u a 


0] 






<v 


a> 


CD 




PI 


<u 


o 


© 






0) 


o> 


CD 


a> 




p| 


is 


a 




rQ 


> 


t> 


> 


^ 


> 


t> 


> 






> 


> 


> 


t* 


,_< 




CD 




i 


o 


o 


o 


rrt 




o 


o 


o 


crt 


O 


o 


o 


O 


o 


a 


CD 


CD 




B 


a 


a 


o 


t-. 


a 


a 


a 


o 


CD 


a 


a 


a 


a 


o 




3 


s 




& 


co 


<0 


■* 


H 


Ph 


CO 


CN 


^ 


H 


Ph 


■* 


CO 


CN 


i-i 


h 


Ph 


'A 


Ph 


Literate: 








































9-11 


12 
25 


5 
11 


2 
6 


2 
4 


9 
21 


75 

84 


2 

2 


1 

2 


... 


3 

4 


25 
16 


3 
2 


2 
5 


4 
8 8 


12 
23 


100 

92 






Hebrew, 9-11 


2 


8 


12-14— 






































Boys. . . 


18 
19 


7 
4 


10 

8 


1 
2 


18 
14 


100 

73R 












4 
4 


8 
3 


1 2 


15 


83i 
68+ 


3 
6 


16? 


Girls 


2 


2 


i 


5 


26+ 


3 3 13 


31J+ 


15-above— 




Men 


51 
49 


20 2 


5 

8 


45 
44 


88+ 
89R 


2 
3 


2 

2 


2 


6 
5 


11*+ 
10+ 


8 


11 


14 9 42 


82+ 
89 J + 


9 
5 


17i+ 


Women 


17 


19 


5 11 


14 


14 44 


10+ 


Illiterate: 








































10-11.. 


4 

8 


2 
1 


2 
2 


"\ 


4 
7 


100 
87J 














1 


1 
1 


2 

4 


4 
6 


100 
75 






12-14 


1 






1 


12^ 


1 


2 


25 


15-above— 




Men 


21 

8 


5 
1 


4 
4 


8 
1 


17 
6 


81- 
75 


4 
1 






4 
2 


19+ 
25 


4 
1 


2 
1 


6 
1 


6 18 
4 7 


85H- 
87| 


3 
1 


14+ 


Women 


1 




124 


Italian — 






































Men 


20 
20 


7 
2 


10 

7 


2 
8 


19 

17 


95 
85 


1 

2 


1 




1 
3 


5 
15 


3 
1 


6 
4 


4 
4 


6 19 


95 
65 


1 
7 


5 


Women 


4 


13 


35 


Slav- 








































Men 


10 
30 


5 

8 


2 
10 


1 
5 


8 
23 


80 
76§ 


2 

4 


2 


1 


2 

7 


10 
23J 


2 


4 


2 
6 


6 
10 


8 
22 


80 
73* 


2 

8 


10 


Women 


26§ 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

In the Four-Cube Test, 75 per cent of all literate immigrants suc- 
ceeded in correctly executing 4 out of the 6 movements. The girls 
of the literate 12-14- group fell a little below the 75 per cent mark, 
while the boys of the same group made the best record (100 per cent). 
This is the only group among the literates which shows a difference 
in performance as regards sex. Many of the young children, espe- 
cially in the Hebrew literate group, excelled the older immigrants in 
this test. 

In the Four-Cube Test the 4 children of the illiterate 10-11 group 
succeeded in doing 4 movements or better. In fact they did as well 
as any other immigrants, regardless of schooling. Seventy-five per 
cent of all the immigrants of the illiterate groups succeeded in per- 
forming at least 4 movements. The men seem to execute the test 
correctly more often than the women. The Italians, both men and 
women, excel the Slavs. 



42 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

In the Five-Cube Test, 75 per cent of all the literate groups com- 
bined succeeded in accomplishing at least 1 out of 4 movements. 
The only subgroup f ailing below the 75 per cent mark was that of the 
girls of the literate 12-1 4 group. 

In the Five-Cube Test, 75 per cent of all the illiterates succeeded in 
scoring 1 out of 4 movements. The Slav women did not quite suc- 
ceed in making the satisfactory mark of 75 per cent. The percentage 
of success among the women of the Italian illiterate group fell to 65. 

Although the difference exhibited in the various groups are inter- 
esting from a psychological standpoint, yet they are of little import- 
ance when a diagnosis of mental deficiency is under consideration. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

From the above table and summary of results it may be concluded 
that — 

1. When the test is conducted 24 hours after arrival, in a quiet 
room, and after several minutes of preliminary questioning, a normal 
arriving immigrant above the age of 9 may be expected to execute 
4 out of 6 movements with the Four-Cube Test. 

2. This test is uninfluenced by formal schooling. 

3. Above 9 years of age, for practical purposes, there is little or no 
difference in the performance of this test as regards age, sex, and 
nationality. 

4. On the whole, 75 per cent of all immigrants succeed in scoring 
at least 1 movement out of 4 with the Five-Cube Test, although a 
few individual groups are unable to qualify in this test. 

DISCUSSION. 

The Cube Test is perhaps the most useful performance test yet 
devised in the mental examination of arriving immigrants. As the 
test can be quickly executed, it is especially valuable at the second- 
ary inspection or weeding-out process, where the medical officer in- 
spects a large crowd of immigrants for the purpose of selecting those 
suspected of having mental defects. It is also of value in subsequent 
examinations, where it becomes, in addition to its other functions, a 
test in learning. In the Four-Cube Test the subject's mentation is 
put on parade, so to speak. During the performance the subject is 
carefully observed. His general get-up, facial expression, amount 
of self-reliance, power of comprehension, manner of performing test, 
muscular control, rapidity of movement, attention over a period of 
45 seconds, emotional state, as well as accuracy of performance are 
all taken in. The fourth movement brings out his ability to resist 
suggestion. 

In these tests most of the immigrants who succeeded in only two 
or three movements with the Four-Cube Test were tried again at the 



MEMORY TESTS. 43 

conclusion of the entire examination. This secondary testing almost 
invariably resulted in an improvement over the first examination. 
A normal person acquires the knack of performing the experiment. 
The knack for one person may be simply to remember which cube is 
struck first; for another person it may be to remember which two 
cubes are struck first. Hence, from day to day, in repeated mental 
examinations with the Cube Test, an improvement in the perform- 
ance of the test should occur at each examination. In cases where 
only one or two movements were scored in the Four-Cube Test, and 
where the general examination of the subject was up to the average, 
the examiner could predict with almost certainty that the subject 
would make a perfect score in this test if given another opportunity. 

Transient causes sometimes temporarily prevent the performance 
of the test by persons of real ability. Wandering of the attention 
from one cause or another is frequently productive of failure. A 
bright Italian boy did only three movements with the Four-^ube 
Test and then made a perfect score on the Five-Cube Test. A num- 
ber of similar cases have occurred during the experiment. In other 
cases, failure at the start may indicate that the subject does not com- 
prehend what is wanted of him; failure toward the end would be sug- 
gestive of lack of attention or fatigue. 

This test naturally requires a fair degree of vision. 

Many adult immigrants who have had considerable schooling do 
the test poorly, while many young illiterates perform it well. In 
fact, two immigrants who had been to school for seven and nine years, 
respectively, did the Cube Test poorly. The play and toy idea which 
the Cube Test arouses may be productive of the keen interest which is 
often met with in young subjects. 

\. number of subjects can handle four cubes perfectly but make a 
complete failure with five cubes. A five-cube movement is never 
performed accidentally, whereas the four cube occasionally is. 

To execute the Five-Cube Test successfully a subject must move in 
accordance with his first inclination. In this test the examiner should 
mentally give the subject a certain amount of credit if he shows that 
he has the correct idea of combinations, even though the performance 
must be scored a failure, as when the movement 42 135 is substi- 
tuted for the correct movement 24 135. 

In their anxiety to excel in the test some subjects strive to 
imitate the examiner and hold the spool just as he did. In this 
case the essential feature of the test is missed and mistakes are made. 
Other immigrants assume a suggestible attitude; i. e., after touching 
a cube they look at the examiner to see if they can obtain a sign from 
him indicative of their good performance. This attitude may also 
result in failure. 



44 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



In examining an immigrant with the cubes and other tests the 
examiner should always put these,questions to himself: Is the subject 
interested in the test ? Is he cooperating ? Is he emotionally quiet ? 
Is the environment in which this test is performed suitable? Not 
only is an immigration station different from a school, store, recruit- 
ing office, or jail, but the different parts of the station are different one 

from the other. 

COUNTING DOTS. 

Between trial 1 and trial 2 of the Geographic Test (see p. 83) the 
immigrant counted the dots on a card. The card contained 53 dots 
which were arranged in irregular groups occupying 4 rows. (Fig. 4.) 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The dot-counting card was placed on the table in front of the sub- 
ject and the interpreter, pointing to the dots of the first two rows, 
said :* 

Count all the dots on this card; thus 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on. 

The number of dots which the immigrant obtained together with 
the time required for the counting was recorded on his examination 
chart. 

RESULTS. 

The results of this test are given below : 

Table 12. — Results of Counting Dots Test. 









Successes. 


Failures. 


Group. 


a 

a 
e 

s- 
3 

£ 

to 




+3 

o 

CD 

ft 

o 
.He* 

Ps 

5 go 

a 

3 

to 


CO 
CO 
CO 
CO 

8 

© 

CO 

O 
SP 
03 

§ 

u 

CO 
P-l 


© 

a 
s 

to 

03 

(H 
S 

> 
< 


i 

* 

© 

52) 

9 

03 
m 

CO 

a 

Eh 


Number of dots immigrant obtained and time he 
required. (Superior numerals indicate the num- 
ber of immigrants in each group getting the 
same results, the number of seconds given being 
an average of the time required by each.) 




CO 

O 

co 


GO 

o 
-d 


GO 

o 


CO 

O 


GO 

o 


GO 

o 


GO 

o 


GO* 
■♦a 

O 
•0 

i-H 

to 


CO 
O 

CO 
CD 


Literate: 

9-11 


12 
25 
37 

51 

48 

2 

8 

27 

20 
20 

10 


u 

21 

28 

41 
38 

2 

6 
22 

18 
117 

10 
21 


91f 

84 
75§ 

80 
79 

100 
75 
8U 

90 
85 

100 
72i 


Sees 
34 
34 
34 

30 
33 

44 
38 
34 

31 

35 

37 

48 


Sees. 
25-48 
25-48 
22-52 

18-49 
20-46 

42-46 
28-41 
23-43 

21-49 
22-45 

28-55 
26-70 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 
35 
342 
322 

34 
31 7 


Sees, 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Sees. 


Hebrew, 9-11 








45 

28 

40 
37 


48 
40 2 

36« 
35 








12-14 






25 


20 

i 


35 

i 


50 


15-above— 

Men 


47 


37 




Women 


27 






Illiterate: 

10-11 












12-14 










462 
43 

272 
45 










15-above 










40 3 


45 






Italian — 

Men 














Women 










52 








Slav- 
Men 
















Women 










582 


45* 


43 J« 

























1 One immigrant in this group would not count the dots. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



45 



• » : 

• • 

: # • : 

• • ♦ 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• « 

• . : 



uJ 

y 
I 

UJ 

\n 

X 

b 

< 

UJ 

X 
J 

Zi 

0. 



Eh 

•S 



o 

o 

o 
a 



46 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

Seventy-five per cent of all the immigrants tested succeeded in 
making an accurate count. 

The only subgroup which fell below the 75 per cent mark was that 
of the women of the Slav illiterate group. Seventy-two and one-half 
per cent of their number made an accurate account. 

The accuracy of the count, above the age of 9, appears to be inde- 
pendent of race, age, and formal schooling. 

The performance time of the literates is faster than that of the 
illiterates. The average time in the literate groups varied from 30 
to 34 seconds, while in the illiterate groups it varied from 31 to 48 
seconds. 

DISCUSSION. 

This test, in a broad sense, is a memory test. It shows the speed 
and accuracy with which a subject can apply a fixed number asso- 
ciation to the task of dot counting. The subject who is accustomed 
to counting will count these dots easily, it may be said almost reflexly, 
but it is a more laborious task for one who has done little counting. 
A number of immigrants who evidently did little counting at home 
had much difficulty in counting beyond 29. They would say ' ' twenty 
ten" instead of u thirty." They had to be assisted over the thirtieth, 
fortieth, and fiftieth dots. This assistance was given especially in 
the case of the women of the Slav illiterate group. Several immi- 
grants who counted 53 dots made two mistakes while counting, 
inserting an extra dot in one instance and skipping one in another, 
one mistake counteracting the other. 

LEARNING. 

Learning is a complex test similar to a recognition test suggested 
for the experiment by Prof. Henry Alford Ruger, and is applied 
according to the learning principle in testing. 

It consisted in exposing 3 geometrical figures on the back of a card 
to the subject's view and getting him to find the same 3 figures among 
20 figures on the face of the card. (Figs. 5 and 6.) He was scored on 
the number of exposures or trials that were necessary to accomplish 
the task. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The face of the card containing 20 different geometrical figures was 
placed in front of the immigrant for a brief glance (2 or 3 seconds). 

The card was then turned over, so that he could observe the side 
containing the 3 geometrical figures. At the same time the inter- 
preter said: 

Look at these 3 figures well; fix them in your mind. I want you to find them on 
the other side of the card. 



MEMOEY TESTS. 



47 




Fig. 5. — Face of card used in Learning Test. 




U.S. public Health 5ervice. 

Fig. 6.— Back of card used in Learning Test. 



48 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



After 10 to 15 seconds the card was turned over, so that the 20 
geometrical figures came into view. The interpreter then said: 

Look well; find the 3 figures among them. 

As soon as the subject made a mistake, the card was immediately 
turned over, so as to obtain another view of the 3 geometrical figures. 
This second and each subsequent exposure to the 3 figures lasted 
only 5 or 6 seconds. The card was again turned over, and the subject 
searched for the 3 figures among the 20 figures for a second time. 

As before, as soon as a wrong figure was pointed to the card was 
quickly reversed in order to obtain a third exposure of the 3 figures. 
This process of exposing the 3 figures, turning over the card, and 
having the subject search for them was repeated until he succeeded 
in finding all 3 at the same trial. The immigrant was scored on the 
number of exposures of the 3 figures which were necessary in order to 
accomplish the task. 

RESULTS. 

The results of this test are given in the following table: 
Table 13. — Results of Learning Test. 





e 

a 

1 

OS 

X 
<x> 

© 

a 

3 


Number succeeding in 
4 or less trials. 


Percentages. 


Number succeeding in more 
than 4 trials. 


Group. 




CO 

c 

CN 


co 

H 
"C 


co 


Number succeed- 
ing in 3 or less 
trials. 


Number succeed- 
ing in 4 or less 
trials. 


CO 

10 


CO 

n 

CO 


co 
"3 

(-1 


CO 

s* 

00 


CO 




CO 

[3 
"C 

i-H 


CO 

[3 
'£ 

10 

1— t 


Literate: 
9-11 . 


12 
25 

18 
19 

50 

49 

4 

8 

20 

8 

20 
20 

10 
30 


5 

8 

6 
4 

11 
16 

1 

4 

2 
2 

3 
11 


6 
10 

6 

7 

21 
16 

4 

7 
1 

6 
5 

3 

10 


1 

4 

3 
6 

13 

11 

1 
1 

5 
5 

3 
3 

2 
5 


2 

2 
1 

4 
2 

1 
1 

1 

5 
3 

1 

1 


100 

88 

83£ 
89| 

90 

87J 

50 
62^ 

80 
75 

55 
50 

70 
86§ 


100 
96 

94^ 
941 

98 
91i 

75 
75 

85 
75 

80 
65 

80 
90 
















Hebrew 9-11 . 


— 


1 












12-14— 
Boys 




1 








Girls 


"2 

1 
1 

1 

2 
1 


1 
1 










15-above — 
Men 












Women 


1 


1 








Illiterate: 

10-11 








12-14. . . 


1 


1 










15-above — 
Men 


1 








Women 








Italian — 
Men . 




2 


1 

3 








Women 


1 
1 


1 


?. 


Slav- 
Men 


1 
3 








Women 



























CONCLUSIONS. 

The important conclusions to be drawn from the data above 
presented are that: 

Seventy-five per cent of all the immigrants tested were able to 
succeed in the Learning Test with four trials or less. However, only 
65 per cent of the women of the Italian illiterate group succeeded in 
performing the test with four trials or less. 



MEMORY TESTS. 49 

The literate groups greatly excelled the illiterates in the per- 
formance of this test. Over 83 per cent of each literate group suc- 
ceeded in doing the test within three trials. Among the illiterates 
the women of the Slav illiterate group made an excellent record. 

In the literate groups the young immigrants do the test as well 
as the older ones. Among illiterates the young immigrants do the 
test nearly as well. 

DISCUSSION. 

Auditory memory is especially involved in many of the memory 
tests of this investigation. The present test differs from others in that 
it tests the visual-apprehending-retaining apparatus of the subject. 

In apprehending the three geometrical forms, the subject must ana- 
lyze them and differentiate them. They must be retained sufficiently 
long to be recognized. The ease with which the immigrant retained 
and recognized these forms was to some extent an index of his learn- 
ing ability. 

As in many other tests, previous experience has much to do with 
the quick performance of this test. This is proven by the excellent 
showing which the literates make. They have on previous occa- 
sions, in a more or less systematic way, familiarized themselves with 
these and similar forms. While they may be unaware of the fact, 
nevertheless they have made such observations at school, at work, 
and at play. Even the illiterates have observed and retained forms 
of different kinds, especially those whose occupations have made 
them familiar with geometrical designs. If forms of various kinds 
are poorly perceived or if not perceived at all, it is more than likely 
that there is some defect in the apprehension and perception function 
cf the individual. The examiner had the opportunity of trying this 
test on several immigrants who had been certified as feeble-minded. 
These certified immigrants accomplished the test in 6, 8, 10, 12, and 
more trials. 

The examiner believes that the Learning Test is one of the best 
for use in the mental examination of arriving immigrants. Should 
this test be used when examinations are repeated, cards containing 
20 other simple geometrical designs or the same designs in different 
arrangement should be used. 

OBEYING COMMANDS. 

This test consisted in finding how many commissions a subject 
could execute in definite order after being given definite instructions. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

Four series of commands were given to each subject, as follows: 

Two commands. — 1. Open door. 2. Chair near window. 

Three commands. — 1. Book on floor". 2. Chair in corner. 3. Pencil on chair. 
1970°— 17 4 



50 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Four commands. — 1. Pencil on table. 2. Close door. 3. Book on table. 4. 
Block on floor. 

Five commands. — 1. Block on table. 2. Book on floor. 3. Open door. 4. Chair 
near window. 5. Pencil in corner. 

In every case the interpreter would start with the two-command 
series. Whether a success or a failure occurred, the alien would be 
tested with the next higher series. Before giving the command, the 
interpreter would point to the different details in the ro"om connected 
with the test, saying, ' 'There is the boftjx, pencil, block, table, floor, 
door, corner, chair, window. " The interpreter would then give each 
series of commands twice. In the case of the two-command series 
he would say, l 'First open the door (pointing to it) ; then place the 
chair near the window (pointing to it)." The alien usually executed 
this series promptly, though sometimes he had to be urged to carry 
out the command. After executing the commands he would return 
and take his seat at the end of the table. The objects were arranged 
in accordance with the demands of the next series before the test 
was continued. 

In the final score, the immigrant was allowed one-half point if he 
executed the commands of a higher series but failed to carry them 
out in order. 

RESULTS. 

A table of results is given to show how many immigrants succeeded 
in obeying at least four commands : 

Table 14. — Results of Obeying Commands Test. 





Num- 
ber 
exam- 
ined. 


Execution of four commands or 
more. 


Execution of less than four commands. 




Number of aliens. 


Per 
cent- 
age. 


Number of aliens. 




Group. 


Five 
com- 
mands. 


Four 
commands. 


Three 
commands. 


Two 
commands. 


Per 
cent- 
age. 




5 


l 4J 


4 


I3j 


3 


l 2J 


2 




Literate: 

9-11 


12 
25 

18 
19 

51 
49 

4 

8 

21 

8 

20 
20 

10 
30 


8 
12 

8 
13 

31 
26 

4 
4 

12 
4 

7 
8 

5 
15 


1 

6 

5 
1 

8 
12 


3 
3 

3 
1 

3 

8 


100 
84 

89- 
79- 

82+ 
93J+ 

100 
75 

81- 

87* 

80 
60 

100 
83i 












Hebrew, 9-11.... 
12-14: 

Boys 

Girls . 


3 

4 

6 
2 


1 


1 
1 




16 

11+ 
21+ 


15-above — 

Men 




2 
1 


1 


18- 


Women 

Illiterate: 
10-11 


6 + 


12-14.. 


1 

2 

4 
3 

3 

7 


1 

5 
1 

5 
1 

2 
3 






1 


1 


25 


15-above — 
Men 




4 


19+ 


Women 




1 

2 
1 


\2\ 


Italian- 
Men 


1 
3 


1 
1 


3 


20 


Women 

Slav- 
Men 


40 


Women 


3 


1 




1 


16§ 



1 One-half shows that the immigrant, in addition to executing correctly the commands indicated in the 
table, also carried out the commands of the next higher series, but in an improper order. 



MEMORY TESTS. 51 

With the exception of the women of the Italian illiterate group, 75 
per cent of every group succeeded in obeying at least 4 commands. 
Those who succeeded in obeying 5 commands were greater in number 
than those who could only complete the 4 or 3 commands. The illit- 
erate 10-11 group, from which we would naturally expect the poorest 
result on account of youth and illiteracy, made a perfect score, each 
individual scoring 5. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

From the data above presented it is safe to conclude that: 

(1) Arriving immigrants above the age of 9, whether literate or 
illiterate, are able to obey 4 commands. 

(2) If the examination is conducted as described in this experiment 
it may be expected that 50 per cent of the subjects will make a 
perfect score in this test. 

(3) On the whole there is no marked difference in the performance 
of this test as regards sex. 

DISCUSSION. 

A number of subjects succeeded in carrying out 5 commands after 
having failed in the 3 -command or 4-command series. Failure in the 
earlier series in these particular cases was probably due to a lack of 
understanding as to just what was wanted, or to lack of familiarity 
with some of the objects used in this test or perhaps to temporary 
inattention due to some accidental cause. 

In carrying out this test it is important to remember that emphasis 
should be laid upon the first and last command of each series. This 
method of applying the test implies that the separate commands must 
be carried out in a definite order and thus does away with the neces- 
sity of "too much explaining." 

Several immigrants made one or two mistakes in executing a series. 
However, they quickly saw their mistake, made the correction, then 
went through the series from first to last as it should be done. It is 
needless to say that such a performance was considered a success. 

An individual's early training is largely concerned in obeying com- 
mands. Therefore, the movements required in obeying the different 
commands in this test are a familiar procedure. For similar reasons 
disturbed subjects frequently become more quiet while performing 
this test. 

It is interesting to note that several immigrants were able to obey 
5 commands but could not possibly repeat 5 digits. 

ARRANGING OBJECTS. 

In the Arranging Objects Test the subject was tested in his ability 
to select certain objects from a field containing 16 heterogeneous 
pieces and place them on a board in a certain order after having seen 



52 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

the same operation carried out by the examiner. The board, a part 
of the Cube Test (see p. 39), contained 5 shallow square openings. 
It was placed on the examining table parallel with and about 9 inches 
from the table edge. The field was that portion of the table which 
was bounded by the edge and board. It was about 20 inches long 
and 9 inches broad and contained the 16 heterogeneous pieces, each 
placed in a definite marked position with which the experimenter 
was familiar. The pieces were odds and ends picked up in a child's 
playroom. Between some of them there were certain resemblances. 
Fcr instance, piece 2 was a red block, while piece 12 was a white 
block of the same size; piece 3 was a wooden pig, while piece 6 was a 
wooden chicken of the same color; and piece 1 was a largo coin, while 
piece 14 was a small coin. The pieces were arranged in the field as 
shown in the accompanying illustration (fig. 7). 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The subject stood at the edge of the table and faced the board and 
field. The experimenter, with stop watch in hand, stood at the sub- 
ject's left. The experimenter said to the subject, "Lock well," and 
at the same time picked up the penny and placed it in the first square 
opening of the board. He placed the pig in opening 2 of the board 
and then placed the chicken in opening 3. The board containing the 
three pieces (penny, pig, chicken) was exposed to the immigrant's 
view for 10 additional seconds. Then the examiner turned the immi- 
grant completely about, so that the latter could not see the board. 

When the immigrant was thus turned about, the examiner returned 
the 3 pieces to their respective positions in the field. The subject 
was then turned to again face the board and was instructed to place 
the same 3 pieces in the 3 openings of the board just as the examiner 
had done. The immigrant was always * able to do this without diffi- 
culty. 

The examiner went through the same process again, bat this time 
placed 4 different pieces on the board. They were arranged from 
left to right as follows: Chain, nut, red Mock, pin. When the immi- 
grant failed to make the proper arrangement he was given a second 
trial with 4 other pieces. After the subject had succeeded with 4 
pieces he was tested with 5 pieces. The examiner continued this 
process, each time increasing the number of pieces until the subject 
failed in two trials to make a given arrangement. He was then given 
a score equivalent in points to the number of objects successfully 
arranged. If, in spite of failure in a second trial, he selected the 
proper pieces but in a wrong order, or kept to the right order though 
selecting 1 wrong piece, one-half point was added to his score. 

* One woman of the Italian illiterate group failed to arrange 3 objects. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



53 






Tv\\\ 



II. 1 i 



at 






< \, 



/; ' 



Wl) 




K 



\ - - ^ 















csJ 



S 

.3 



a, 

CO 



•3 a 



• 


od 




A 


to 


O 




ec 


A 


i-H 


■r, 








P 


55 




:. 


>C 


5 

9 




P- 


A 





•- a 



CO • 



S3 

y c2 ^ 

£ • <d 

2 o 

x -J h-< 
jr o 

S ° 2 



<Q r-1 O 
= . .2 

3> w -a 



to _i 

a 

3 

I- tJO 

< 3 



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id 

:i 

9 

pq 






54 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



The following pieces and arrangements of them represent the dif- 
ferent tests that were used at the first trial: 

Four-piece. — Chain, nut, red block, pin. 

Five-piece. — Spool, dish, watch, ring, nut. 

Six-piece. — Button, white block, chicken, pencil, top, dish. 

Seven-piece. — Ring, dish, penny, pin, chain, watch, chicken. 

Eight-piece. — Spool, button, white block, red block, pin, top, ring, nut. 

Nine-piece. — Dish, large coin, chain, penny, button, spool, top, white block, nut. 

Except in the case of the Five-Piece Test 1 the same objects, but 
in reverse order, were used in conducting the second trial. 

RESULTS. 

The results of these tests are given below: 

Table 15. — Results of Arranging Objects Test. 







Number of aliens arranging different numbers of objects. 1 


How the 

one-half 

point was 

scored. 






(One-half point is scored where immigrant uses correct 




a 


objects in wrong order or 1 incorrect object in right order.) 


Group. 


9 ob- 


8 ob- ! 7 ob- 


6 ob- 


5 ob- 


4 ob- 3 ob- 


a 


CJ 


jects. 


jects, jects. 


jects. 


jects. 


jects. 1 jects. 


VI £ 






03 












o ^3 


Cv _Q 




X 
























.~->o 




o 




OT 






m 




m 




c/i 






r^ ■*■* 


O-M 




S-i 


w 




OT i "S 


iz: 





en 


fl 


w 


G 


<Z) 


d 


w 


O cj 


° o 
It 3 ® 




s 


"3 


o 

ft 


.a ! o 


a 

'3 


o 
ft 


.s 

'3 


O 
ft 


"3 


o 
ft 


a 
'3 


o 
ft 


.5 
'3 


t- o 


CC t-i 




a 


rv 


H!?» 


ft ' ^ 


ft 


HM 


ft 




ft 




ft 


Htfl 


a 


o 


o° 




^ 


ca 


00 


OC l~ 


t-~ 


O 


CO 


CO 


lO 


-*i 


>* 


CO CO 


O 


a 


Literate: 






I 






















9-11 


12 
24 










2 
1 


2 

3 


3 
3 


3 
9 


2 

8 








3 
6 


4 


Hebrew 9-11 
















6 


12-14— 






i 











Boys 


IS 
13 






' 


1 
1 


1 
1 


4 
2 


3 
4 


6 
4 


2 
4 


1 




3 

7 


3 


Girls 


1 






1 


1 .... 


3 


15-above — 








M-n 


51 

48 




1 


...J 2 
1 2 


.... 


3 

1 


4 
6 


12 

17 


11 

8 


10 

8 


3 
1 


3 2 

3 .... 


22 
21 


9 


Women 


10 


Illiterate: 












1J-11 


4 

8 
2 28 














1 


1 
1 

7 


2 
2 
5 






1 




1 


12-14 














3 
6 


.... 


1 1 1 
6 --. 


3 
12 


2 


15-above 














3 


7 


Italian: 




















Men 


20 
3 20 










1 




2 
2 


1 

1 


3 
3 


4 
6 


4 


3 
4 


2 

3 


7 
8 


1 


Women 










3 


Slav — 
















Men. 


10 

29 














1 
2 


2 

7 


3 
6 


4 
5 






5 
9 


1 


Women 










2 


2 


4 


i .... 


6 



















1 Alien recorded as arranging a given number of objects has also arranged the series containing fewer 
obj -•cts. 
•29 examined: 28 recorded. 
3 1 woman in this group failed to arrange 3 objects. 

It will be observed that 40 children under the age of 12 were 
examined and not one of them scored under 4 \ points. 

The fact of literacy does not seem to have influenced the execution 
of this tost. 

DISCUSSION. 

This test is somewhat different from the other memory tests. In 
addition to retaining and recalling, action on the part of the subject 

'Pieces used for trial 2 were pig, ring, pencil, red block, top. 



MEMORY TESTS. 55 

is required. It has been found in testing immigrants that, where 
action is injected into a memory test, the subject makes a better 
showing than in a test wherein simple verbal recall takes place. This 
better showing in action-memory tests is more noticeable in the case 
of " Obeying Commands" than in the present test. 

On account of the similarity existing between some of the pieces, 
undoubtedly in certain instances the acts of comparing and dis- 
criminating accompanied the act of recalling. 

Occasionally, after the performance of the test, the immigrant was 
asked as to how he performed it. The answers showed that both 
auditory and visual methods were employed. When the immigrant 
performed the test with the assistance of word memories, it was 
noticed that he performed it by arranging the pieces one after another 
in regular order either from right to left or from left to right. 

In a number of instances the subject would correctly arrange the 
pieces but would take them up in an irregular order. In these cases tho 
subject almost invariably stated that he held a mental picture of the 
arranged objects and did not think of their names while replacing 
them on the board. No attempt was made by the examiner to find 
how many had succeeded by either the auditory or visual method. 

The best record was made by a Norwegian girl, age 14, who scored 
9 points. When questioned as to how she succeeded, she said that 
she did not look at the board but at the field, retaining the exact 
order in which the examiner removed the pieces from the field. It 
is possible that she had performed a similar test before. 

The successful performance of this test implies that retention takes 
place over a comparatively long period, which becomes progressively 
longer as the test proceeds. In other words, the larger the number 
of objects retained the longer the retention, because it required a 
longer time for the examiner to return the pieces from the board to the 
field. 

Perseveration was shown by a number of immigrants. For instance, 
in attempting to do the Six-Piece Test, the alien would carry out the 
Five-Piece arrangement which had been executed one or two minutes 
before. 

In arranging the different tests a number of immigrants, probably 
audiles, proceeded in regular order from right to left. This manner 
of performance is evidently due to ignorance, the immigrant not being 
sufficiently familiar with right and left order. In many cases this 
test brought about a strained condition of the attention and fatigue. 
At times, however, the test seemed to quiet a tremulous, anxious, 
and otherwise disturbed subject. In some instances standing up 
while undergoing the test and cloing certain things seemed to be 
productive of a more quiet emotional state and a healthier attitude 
during the remainder of the examination. 



56 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



After understanding what is wanted, the average subject assists 
in the execution of this test. He will turn about, return to the table, 
and execute the arrangement at the proper time. 

An advantage of this test is that it can be executed without the 
assistance of an interpreter. 

NUMBER OF MONTHS IN THE YEAR. 

The following table shows how the different groups responded to 
the question, "How many months are there in a year?" 



Table 


16.- 


—Results of Number of Months in 


Z/*e Year Tesi. 








Literates. 


Illiterates. 




■ 


bB 1 bO 




i 


W) 


bfi . 




, 


60 | bO 




4 






d 


Pi CO 


R w 




a 






03 


•r «~ T 1 «■< 




a 


"-I Ui 


> © 




03 


— ' (h it* b 






> © > 05 






■ © 






'« r-0) 




"Sfc& 'Sb^ 




© 


'3b £ 


•ais 




to 


bc£ 


S-£ 


Group. 


© 

*■• R 

©.R. 
,5 

a 


mber 
rrect ans 
centage 
rrect ans 


Group. 


© 

t-, fl 

to a 

a 


R 

03 


© c 

03 
CD © 


Group. 


© 

!' a 

a 


fl 

03 

J 15 

'R © 


© S 
MS 
Ci 
■tJ-t-> 

R © 

© © 




R 


R e £ o 




9 


fl o 






R 


3 o 


^°, 




65 

12 
25 
37 
99 


65° 

12 
24 
34 
98 


100 
96 
92 
99 




65 


65 u 

4 

8 

26 

20 


100 

100 

96 

100 




fe 


£ u 


Ph° 


9-11 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 

20 


Italian : Women 

Slav: 

Men 


20 

10 
30 


18 

9 
26 


90 


Hebrew, 9-11 


12-14 




12-14 


15-above 


90 


15-above 


Italian: Men 


Women 


87 







NAMES OF MONTHS. 



In response to the command "Name the months in the year," 
the results shown in the following table were obtained. It may be 
concluded from these results that many normal or average immi- 
grants are unable to perform this test. The men of the Italian 
illiterate group excelled all other illiterate groups. 







Table 17. — Results of Names of Months Test. 








Literates. 


Illiterates. 


Group. 


4 
© . 

a§ 

R o3 
65 


© 

R 

w bi> 

*-• R 
02 R 

as 

R 8 
S3 


© . 

be bo 
S3 fl 

r3 

© Jg 

o © 

© R 


Group. 


© . 

Ir 

^•R 

ag 

R o3 

65 


© 

©rR 

•9© 

fl O) 

65 


© . 
bCbC 

03 fl 

fl'"> 

© s 

© © 

© R 


Group. 


■ 

© 

©S 

aa 

R 03 
65 


© 

R 

© a 

fl <u 

R © 

65 


© . 

bDbfl 
R^ 

© s 

© © 

© R 


9-11 


12 
25 
37 
99 


7 
14 

27 
85 


58J 
56 
73 
85*+ 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 

20 




2 

15 

16 



25 

55\ 
80" 


Italian: Women . . 
Slav: 

Men 


20 

8 
27 


11 

4 
5 


ffi 


Hebrew 9-11 


12-14 




12-14 


15-above 


50 


15-above 


Italian: Men 


Women 


m 





NUMBER OF DAYS IN THE YEAR. 



The question "How many days are there in a year?" was asked 
each immigrant. On the whole, the replies were very unsatisfactory. 
The following table shows the number of immigrants who succeeded 
in giving correct and approximately correct answers (360 to 366), 
and the number who responded by saying "I don't know," or who 



MEMORY TESTS. 



57 



did not approximate the correct reply. It is evident from these 
tables that illiterate immigrants and young literates can not be 
expected to give the correct response to this question. 

Table 18. — Results of Days in the Year Test. 





•6 

o 
PI 

a 

c3 
X 
o 

© 

a 

d 


Number giving correct or 
approximately correct re- 
plies. 


o 

d 

o 

<o 

»— ( 

a 
■R 

c3 
co 
(h 
CD 
,5 

a 
3 




Group. 


»o 

CO 

"2 

CO 

O 

A 

CD 
fit 

B 
3 


CO 

CO 

■a 

co 
O 

,5 

a 


CO 
CO 

d 

co . 

o ^ 

£d 

^ a 

CD c3 

a 


CO 
CO 

tJ 

'rt 

CO 

O 

.d 

o 

a 


CO 
CO 
CO 

'c3 

CO 

o 

S-H 

« 

a 
ft 


CM 

CO 
CO 

•d 
*e3 

CO 

O 
A 

M 
CD 
,3 

a 


O 
CO 
CO 

-d 
'c3 

CO 

o 

CD 

,2 

a 

3 
5? 


Other replies given. (Superior numeral 
indicates that two aliens in same group 
gave same reply.) 


Literate: 

9-11 


12 

25 
37 

51 
49 

4 

8 

27 

120 
20 

9 
33 


.... 

7 

19 

23 


i 










1 

2 

2 

4 
3 


5 
17 
13 

6 

7 

3 

7 
11 

3 

10 

1 
20 


358, 355, 350, 150, 135. 


Hebrew 9-11.... 










370, 350, 173, 160, 52. 


12-14 


2 

9 
2 


4 
1 


l 






3502, 380, 345, 153, 150, 136, 100, 900, 1,0002, 


15-above — 

Men 


i 
i 


1 


1,063. 
375, 3002, 376, 165, 125, 65. 


Illiterate: 

10-11 


375, 352, 350, 344, 316, 300, 500*, 600, 656, 102, 

1,323. 
52. 


12-14 










i 
i 








15-above 


7 

6 
1 

1 
5 


9 

4 

1 


2 








375, 330, 164, 100, 466, 370 and 371. 


Italian — 

Men 






310. 


Women 












300, 500, 100, 302. 


Slav- 
Men 


2 
1 


— 


i 






300, 370, 253. 


Women 






385, 350, 3302. 















i One of this subgroup answered 353 or 366. 
DATE. 



Each immigrant was questioned as to the month, day of month, 
and day of week. The results were as follows : 

Table 19. — Results of the Date Tests. 



Test. 



Month 



Day 'of 
month, 



Day of 
week. 



Literates. 








■d 


73 


CO 
CO 




a 


CO 


35 




a 


CO 

CD 


a 

3 




03 


o 


CO 


Group. 


cd 


d 

CO 


bX)3 




U 


u 


es * M 




<o 









A 


A 


Pi 




a 


a 


o 




d 


d 






% 


% 


Ph 


9-11 


12 
25 


7 
85 


58} 
32 


Hebrew 9-11 . . 


12-14 


37 
99 


24 

88 


6H+ 


15-above 


9-11 


12 
25 


3 
1 


25 
4 


Hebrew 9-11.. 


12-14 


37 


14 


37J+ 


15-above 


99 


66 


66| 


9-11 


12 
25 


9 
23 


75 
92 


Hebrew 9-11.. 


12-14 


37 
99 


32 
89 


86£ 
89£+ 


15-above 



Illiterates. 





i 


d 


CO 

CO 

© 




p, 


co 


o 








o 




c3 


o 
o 


d 

CO 


Group. 


© 


3 

CO 


©-* 








C3*— 




CD 









X! 


fi> 


a 


\ 


a 


a 


3 




d 


B 


CD 




fc 


£ 


Ph 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 




4 

17 



50 
63 - 


12-14 


15-above 


Italian: Men.. 


20 


17 


85 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 



3 

12 




37i 
44i+ 


12-14 


15-above 


Italian: Men . . 


20 


12 


60 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 


3 

5 

18 


75 

62.\ 

66§ 


12-14 


15-above 


Italian : Men . . 


20 


16 


80 



Group. 






Italian: Women . 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 

Italian: Women . 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 

Italian: Women. 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



w>d 

03*~ 

a 

© 

© 

Ph 



80 

40 

36§ 

45 

10 
10 

75 

90 

96| 



58 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



The above table shows that in responding as to what month it 
was, 75 per cent of the literate 15 and above and Italian illiterate 
groups succeeded, while the other groups made a poor showing. 

In responding to the question as to what day of the month it 
was the literate 15 and above group made the best showing, 66| per 
cent of their number giving the correct day of the month. 

In responding to the question as to what day in the week it was, 
75 per cent of all the immigrants examined gave the correct reply. 
However, the illiterate 12-14- an d illiterate 15 and above groups fell 
below the 75 per cent mark. 

From these results it may be concluded: 

That many normal immigrants above the age of 9, when ques- 
tioned in regard to the date, are unable to give the correct month or 
day of the month, but are able to give the correct day of the week. 

NUMBER OF DAYS IN WEEK. 

The question "How many days are there in a week?" was asked 
of each immigrant. Most frequently a correct response was given, 
but 8 and 6 were also frequent answers. The following table shows 
the exact replies. 

Table 20. — Results of Number of Days in Week Test. 





Number 
exam- 
ined. 


Number 
giving 
correct 
reply. 


Number 

saying 

"I don't 

know." 


Number giving other replies. 


Group. 


Number 

who 

said 5. 


Number 

who 

said 6. 


Number 

who 

said 8. 


Number 

who 
said 14. 


Literate: 

9-11 


12 
25 
37 
99 

4 

8 
27 

20 
20 

10 
30 


8 
22 
34 
67 

3 
3 

14 

11 
13 

8 
14 






3 




1 


Hebrew 9-11.. 






3 




12-14 






3 
24 




15-above 




8 




Illiterate: 

10-11 


1 
1 

1 

1 






12-14 




3 
11 

7 
6 

1 
16 


1 
1 

1 




15-above 






Italian- 
Men 






Women 


1 




Slav- 
Men 




1 




Women 


i 






1 







NAMES OF DAYS IN WEEK. 

Each immigrant was requested to name the days in the week. 
Seventy-five per cent of every group succeeded. The literates 
excelled the illiterates. The following table gives the results. 



MEMORY TESTS. 
Table 21. — Remits of Naming the Week Test. 



59 



Literates. 


Illiterates. 




t3 


U 


CO 

to 




© 


2 


CO 
CO 

© 




•d 
o 


Tj 


CO 




d 


to 


s 






CO 


O 




£ 




s 
















5 










F! 


© 


d 




H 


o 


3 




H 




d 




03 


o 






c3 


© 






C3 


o 




Group. 


© 


d 

CO 


b^d 
e3«« 


Group. 


p, 

© 


3 

to 


b£d 


Group. 


© 


d 

CO 














as 


9 






o 


© 






,o 


& 


d 




.Q 


£ 


d 




XJ 


^2 


d 




ft 


g 


5 




a 


a 


o 




a 


a 


o 




d 


d 






3 


s 


© 




d 


d 


3 




fc 


12 
21 


Ph 




4 

8 


^ 


Ph 




^ 


l«H 


Ph 


9-11 


12 

25 


100 
96 


10-11 


3 

7 


75 

87^ 


Italian: Women . . . 
Slav: 


20 


19 


95 


Hebrew 9-11 


12-14 




12-14 


37 
100 


37 
100 


100 
100 




27 
23 


26 
17 


96J 

8ft 


Men 


10 
30 


10 
30 


TV) 


15-above 


Italian: Men 


Women 


ino 







NAME OF SHIP. 

Each immigrant was asked the name of the ship upon which he 
had come. 

Table 22 shows that the literates excel the illiterates in this test. 
Many illiterates fail to answer the question. It is interesting to 
note how well the Italians, both men and women, responded to this 
question. It is possible that the frequent going and coming of this 
race and the interest in emigration manifested by the Italian Gov- 
ernment may have something to do with the satisfactory replies 
which the Italians make to this question. 

Table 22. — Results of Name of Ship Test. 



Literates. 


Illiterates. 


Group. 


Sm • 

cbTJ 

»s 

£© 

12 

24 
37 
98 


& "53 

d « 

11 

22 
34 
85 


© • 

C3,g 
"£ m 

fi CO 

c o 

O CD 

CD 2 

Ph w 


Group. 


CD 'O 

a a 

3 cS 
£ CD 


CD 7^ 
•^ 
d © 


CD . 
W— ! 
C3.J 

© o 

*-■ © 

£3 

M CO 


Group. 


sf 

d cs 
Z© 1 


Ui . 

•° to 

s« 

_I © 


© . 

"£ co 

i-H CO 

CD CD 
CD O 
<- © 

A< co 


$-11 


91| 

sis 

9H 
86J+ 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 

20 


2 
5 

23 
20 


50 
62 1 5 
85+ 
100 


Italian: Women . . 
Slav: 

M-n.. 


19 

10 
30 


17 

6 
17 


89* 


Hebrew, 9-11 


12-14 


12-14 


15-above 


60 


15-above 


Italian: Men 




i.63 





COPYING AND DRAWING FROM MEMORY. 

In this experiment the immigrant copied 5 geometrical figures 
and drew 3 such figures from memory. (See fig. 8.) 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

Drawings on cards of 5 geometrical figures — a square, diamond, 
double trapezoid, bent-wire figure, and allied-Ziehen figure — were 
placed one at a time in front of the immigrant, who copied them on 
definite parts of paper ruled for the purpose. 




60 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 





Fig. 8.— Geometrical forms used in copying and drawing from memory. 



MEMORY TESTS. 61 

The first memory drawing was of two parallel lines and was used 
simply to introduce the test. The other geometrical figures used 
were a trapezoid and an interlocking figure, the former being exposed 
for 5 seconds, the latter for 10. Immediately after each exposure 
the immigrant made his drawing from memory. 

Frequently, in the case of illiterates, the question was asked, 
"Have you ever had a pencil in your hand before ? " Many responded 
in the negative. 

The drawings were made in pencil, and at the termination of the 
examination they were traced in ink for preservation and repro- 
duction. 

CLASSIFICATION OF IMMIGRANTS' DRAWINGS. 

Each immigrant's drawing, with the exception of the square and 
parallel lines, was placed in one of three grades by the mutual agree- 
ment of the interpreter and the examiner. If they disagreed as to 
how a drawing should be classified, a third person was called in to 
consider the drawing carefully and make the final decision as to 
classification. The poorest drawings were placed in grade 1, while 
the best ones were placed in grade 3. For the purpose of classifica- 
tion two standard drawings were made of each geometrical figure 
and arranged one above the other. (See fig. 9.) The upper stand- 
ard in each instance was a better drawing and approached the origi- 
nal geometrical figure more closely in appearance than the lower 
one. 

To be entitled to grade 3, an immigrant's drawing would have to 
be at least as good as the upper standard. To be classed in grade 2, 
the drawing would have to be equal to or better than the lower 
standard. If a drawing was not as good as the lower standard, it 
was placed in grade 1. 

In placing a drawing in one of the three grades the examiner and 
interpreter in each case considered the following points: 

(1) How did the drawing which was to be classified resemble the 
original in general appearance? 

(2) Could a person who had not seen the original drawing tell 
from what design the drawing in question was copied or memorized ? 

(3) The drawing to be graded was considered and compared with 
the two standards; that is, comparisons were made between the 
drawing and standards as regards the straightness of lines and 
trueness of angles. The proportion of one element of the drawing 
to another element was compared with the proportions of the stand- 
ards. The completion of lines and the introduction of extra lines 
into the drawing were considered. The good features of the draw- 
ing were permitted to counterbalance the bad ones of the standards, 
and vice versa. 



62 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 










Fjo. 9.— Two standards for each design, used in grading the immigrants drawings in copying and drawing from 

memorv. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



63 



(4) Where certain elements of a drawing suggested tfrat it be 
placed in grade 1 and other elements suggested that it be placed in 
grade 3, it was placed in grade 2. 

(5) In order for the examiner to place in grade 3 a memory draw- 
ing of the interlocking figure, the general outline of the figure and 
proper overlapping would have to be carried out. To be placed in 
grade 2, the drawing would need a correct outline and some over- 
lapping, even if the overlapping was incorrect. 



SPECIMEN DRAWINGS. 

Thirty drawings are reproduced herewith (figs. 10-39). They in- 
clude the drawings of the 10 men and the first 10 women of the 
Slav illiterate group, the 4 children of the illiterate 10-11 group, and 
the first 6 children of the literate 9-11 group. The figures are photo- 
graphed from the originals on which the pencil lines had been 
inked in. 1 

RESULTS. 

The results of these tests are given in the following tables: 
Table 23. — Results of Copying Tests. 





0> 


Number of aliens making the different grades. 




























Allied- 
Ziehen 
figure. 


Averages. 


Group. 


a 

C3 
X 
9 

u 
9 


Diamond. 


Double 
trapezoid. 


Bent- wire 
figure. 








CO 


M 


t-t 


CO 


co 


l-l 


eo 


CO 


?H 


CO 


CM 


1-1 






















£l 


o 


o> 





9 


9 


9 


© 


9 


.3 


9 


<s 


9 






















s 


TJ 


TJ 


■s 


T> 


TJ 


TJ 


TJ 


TJ 


T3 


TJ 


TJ 


TJ 
























03 


m 


03 


S 


03 


03 


efl 


03 


03 


m 


03 

















, u 'i 








•h 


<H 


Sh 


h 


«H 


»H 


(H 


s- 


M 


U 


ii 


lH 






















'A 


o 


o 





O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


<N 


>-i 


— 


— 


r+ 


Literates: 


























9-11 


12 

25 

37 

100 


9 
21 
33 

86 


1 

2 
3 
6 


2 
2 
1 

8 


12 
22 
33 

84 






12 

24 
35 
93 






11 

20 
31 

74 


3* 

2 
12 


1 

2 

4 

14 


9 
16 
25 
68 


1 
4 
6 
9 


1 

3 
5 

7 














Hebrew- 9-11... 


1 

4 
4 


2 

12 


T 
5 


1 
1 

2 


1 








1 




12-14 






1 

2 






5 


2 


5 


2 


Illiterates: 














































10-11 


4 

8 

29 


18 


2 
2" 


2 
3 

9 


3 

5 

16 


6* 


1 

3 

7 


3 
3 

22 


"2 
1 


1 
3 

6 


1 
3 

15 


1 

1 
3 


2 

4 

11 






1 
1 
1 


1 
1 
3 


1 
1 
3 


"i" 


1 
1 
3 


2 
1 




12-14 


2 
13 


i 






3 


Italian — 














































Men 


20 


11 


2 


7 


16 


1 


3 


14 


1 


5 


10 


3 


7 


10 


1 


1 


1 


1 




3 


1 


2 


Women 


20 


5 


4 


11 


7 




13 


8 


1 


11 


4 


3 


13 


2 


3 


1 




1 


2 




3 


8 


Slav- 














































Men 


10 
30 


8 
17 


1 
1 


1 
12 


7 
20 


2 
4 


1 

6 


10 
19 






7 
15 


1 

3 


2 
12 


5 
11 


1 
3 


3 
3 






1 








Women 


1 


10 


2 


1 


3 


4 


3 



1 It is to be noted, however, that for the sake of compactness the designs are placed closer together than 
in the original drawings. 



64 



MENTALITY OF TBEE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




Fig. 10. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Hussian(No. 
13 in group), male, 16 years of 
age, 3^ months' schooling. 




Grade I 



Crade III 



Fig. 11. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Russian (No. 25 in 
group), male, 16 years of age, no 
schooling. 




Gride Uj 



Grade HI 



Fig. 12. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Austrian Ru- 
thenian (No. 25 in group) , male, 
16 years of age, no schooling. 
(Never used pencil before.) 




Fig. 13. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian(No. 
lin group), male, 18 years of 
age, 3 months' schooling. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



65 




Grnde I Grade III 



Fig. 14. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian (No. 
7 in group), male, 18 years of 
age, 5 months' schooling. 




Fig. 15. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian Pole 
(No. 5 in group), male, 20 years 
of age, no schooling. (Never 
used pencil before.) 




Grade I 



Grade I 



Fig. 16. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Russian Ruthenian 
(No. 9 in group), male, 22 years o 
age, no schooling. (Never used 
pencil before.) 

1970°— 17 5 




iGrsde II Grade I 

Fig. 17. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Austrian Ruthenian 
(No. 11 in group), male, 24 years 
of age , no schooling. 



66 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




Grade III Grade III 



Fig. 18. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Pole (No. 7 in group), 
male, 28 years of age, 5 months' 
schooling. 




'Grade III 'Grade II 







Grade I - iGxede III 



Fig. 19. Copying and draw- 
ing from memory by Rus- 
sian (No. 9 in group), male, 
33 years of age, no schooling. 




Grade I Grade II 



Fig. 20. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian 
(No. 26 in group), female, 12 
years of age, 3 months' school- 
ing, 




Fig. 21 . Copying and drawing 
from memory by Austrian 
Ruthenian (No. 22 in 
group), female, 14 years of 
age, no schooling. (Alien 
said, "I never saw a pen- 
cil before.") 



MEMORY TESTS. 



67 




'Grade III! Grade III 



Fig. 22. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Austrian 
Kuthenian (No. 7 in group), 
female, 16 years of age, 4 
months' schooling. 




'Grade I 



Fig. 23. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Austrian Ruthenian (No. 
14 in group), female, 16 years of age, no 
schooling. (Never used pencil before.) 



vli 

^-J Grade III Grade I 




Grade II Grade I 



Fig. 24. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian Pole 
(No. 11 in group), female, 17 
years of age, no schooling. 
(Never used pencil before.) 




Grade I Grade 1 



Fig. 25. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian (No. 
4 in group), female, 17 years 
of age, no schooling. (Never 
used pencil before.) 



68 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




Grade I Grade II 




Oraoe III i ar a4e JU 



\ 



.Grade I Grade f| 




Grade I Grade *U 



Fig.26. Copying and draw- Fig. 27. Copying and drawing from Fig.28. Copying and drawing from 

ingfrom memory by It us- memory by Austrian Ruthenian memory by Russian Pole (No. 4 

sianPole(No.8ingroup), (No. 19in group), female, 17 years in group), female, 11 years of 

female, 17 years of age, of age, no schooling. (Neverused age, no schooling. (Never used 

no schooling. pencil before.) pencil before.) 




Fig. 29. Copying and drawing from memory 
by Russian (No. 22 in group), female, 18 
years of age, no schooling. 




Orade ij Grade 1 



Fig. 30. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Italian (No. 
13 in group), male, 9 years of 
age, 3 years' schooling. 



MEMORY TESTS. 



69 



Grade II Grade III 
' Grade III 




Grade III 





Orad 



e n Grade III 



Fig. 31. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Norwegian 
(No. 1 in group), female, 9 
years of age, 1£ years' schooling. 




Grade III 



Grade in 



Fig. 32. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Italian (No. 
88 in group), male, 10 years of 
age, 2 years' schooling. 




0ra<le 1 Grade II 



Grade III Grade III 



□ OS 

Grade III Grade III 




Grace III Grade III 



Fig. 33. Copyingand drawing frommem- Fig.34. Copyingand drawing Fig. 35. Copying and drawing 
ory by Italian (No. 85 in group), male, from memory by Dane from memory by Turkish 
10 years of age, 1 year schooling. (No. 1 in group), female, 10 Greek (No. 9 in group), fe- 

years of age, 4 years' school- male, 10 years of age, 3 years' 
ing. schooling. 




70 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




Orade III 



'■— ■ • ' tirade III 




Orade III QnU „, 



Fig. 36. Copying and drawing 
from memory by Russian (No. 
16 in group), male, 10 years of 
age, no schooling. (Alien said, 
"A boy showed me how to use 
a pencil.") 




Fig. 37. Copying and drawing from memory by 
Russian Hebrew (No. 7 in group), female, 10 
years of age, no schooling. 




Grade III 



Grade I 




Orade I . Grade IIJ 





Orade I. Crsa , i 1 "- «^/ 



Fig. 38. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Russian Hebrew 
(No. 1 in group), female, 11 
years of age, no schooling. 




{Grade III r Grnde IIJ 



Fig. 39. Copying and drawing from 
memory by Russian (No. 17 in 
group), female, 11 years of age, 
no schooling. (Never used a 
pencil before.) 



MEMORY TESTS. 
Table 24. — Results of Copying from Memory Tests. 



71 







Number of aliens making the different grades. 




Averag 








Num- 












Group. 


ber 
exam- 
ined. 


Trapezoid. 


Interlocking figure. 






































Grade 
3. 


Grade 
2. 


Grade 
1. 


Grade 
3. 


Grade 
2. 


Grade 
1. 


3 


2.50 


2 


1.50 


1 


Literates: 


























9-11 


12 
25 


8 

18 


2 
1 


2 
6 


10 
17 


1 

5 


1 
3 


8 
11 


1 

5 


1 

8 


2 

1 




Hebrew 9-11... 




12-14 


37 
100 


30 
80 


3 

7 


4 
13 


22 
67 


4 
13 


11 

20 


21 
57 


3 

16 


7 
17 


4 
4 


2 


15-above 


6 


Illiterates: 


























10-11 


4 

8 
29 


2 

2 

15 


1 

5 


2 
5 
9 


2 

4 

16 


1 
1 

4 


1 
3 

' 8 


2 

2 

10 






1 

2 
1 


1 


12-14 


7 


2 

4 


?, 


15-above 


7 


Italian — 


























Men 


20 


13 




7 


6 


7 


7 


6 


4 


3 


3 


4 


Women — 


20 


5 


1 


14 


7 


1 


12 


4 




4 


2 


10 


Slav- 


























Men 


10 


4 


1 


5 


8 




2 


4 




4 


1 


1 


Women — 


30 


13 


1 


16 


16 


6 


27 


9 


2 


9 


5 


4 



One drawing not recorded. 



2 One alien in this group did not draw the interlocking figure. 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 



In copying, the majority of immigrants made an average grade 
for the four drawings of at least 2. The average grade 3 was made 
more often than any other single grade. The literates excelled the 
illiterates. The men of the Italian illiterate group excelled the 
women, the women of this group making the poorest showing of all 
groups or subgroups in this test. The bent-wire figure was copied 
with more success than the other designs. The allied-Ziehen figure 
was copied with the least success. 

In drawing from memory, the majority of immigrants made an 
average grade for the two drawings of at least 2. However, as many 
women of the Italian illiterate group and children of the illiterate 
groups fell below grade 2 as above it. As would be expected, the 
literates excelled the illiterates in this test. 

The literates were a little more successful in drawing the trapezoid 
than they were in drawing the interlocking figure, while the illiter- 
ates, doing a poorer grade of work, did equally well with both 
drawings. 

DISCUSSION. 

A glance at the above actual drawings will prove that formal 
schooling is the greatest factor in the successful performance of these 
two tests. Only a small amount of schooling, even two or three 
months, renders the alien capable of doing these tests compara- 
tively well. 

In some instances, where illiterate immigrants made a good grade 
in these tests, it was found that they had handled a pencil before, 
although they had never learned to write. 



72 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

At many institutions for the feeble-minded are to be found speci- 
mens of fine drawing, executed by the inmates, which undoubtedly 
are the result of practice. Many immigrants who made a poor show- 
ing in these tests, whose drawings would be considered the produc- 
tions of an idiot by an inexperienced person, made good records on 
other tests. 

It is certain that if a diagnosis of mental defect was to be made on 
drawing ability alone, many intelligent immigrants would be ex- 
cluded. Hence it may be concluded that in the mental examination 
of an arriving immigrant a poor drawing means nothing in itself. 

Whenever an immigrant copies poorly or fails at memory drawing, 
it may be well to ascertain whether he has been to school, and if so, 
how long ; whether he has tried to draw or write with a pencil at home. 
It would be well to give him a number of trials in drawing at the same 
and at subsequent examinations in order to get an idea of his learning 
ability in this direction. If an immigrant has attended school and 
has had every opportunity to learn to write and then executes a poor 
drawing, defect in the subject's analytic and visual retentive powers 
would be suspected. 

Some immigrants made grade 1 in certain drawings, but redeemed 
themselves in making higher grades with the others. Just as in any 
other test, a temporary emotional disturbance or some accidental 
cause at times may be productive of low-grade work. Hence every 
detail on a drawing chart should be considered and weighed in con- 
nection with the previous experience of the individual. 

It is thought that certain occupations among immigrants give a 
training in form perception which materially assists in the execution 
of drawing tests. Two illiterate Ruthanian girls (Nos. 20 and 21), 
who had never held pencils in their hands before, did well in drawing. 
They wore jackets, the sleeves of which were decorated with different 
colored geometrical figures which they had embroidered. It is prob- 
able that this training in embroidering was of much assistance to them 
in executing these drawing tests. 

During the execution of these tests a number of peculiarities in the 
manner of holding the pencil and manner of executing the drawing 
were observed. 



TRANSITIONAL TESTS (NONARITHMETICAL). 

ENUMERATING DAYS OF WEEK BACKWARD. 

After enumerating the days of the week, the subject was requested 
to recite them in the reverse order. He was allowed two trials. 
The results are given in the following table: 

Table 25. — Result of Enumerating Days Backward Test. 



Literates. 



Group. 



9-11 

Hebrew, 9-11 

12-14 

15, above . . . . 



03 *3 
^ © 
^3 



3 a 
£ © 



12 

25 

37 

100 



©3 

am 
03 
_ o 
3 o 



C CO 

as qj 

o o 

03 a 



91| 
100 
94§+ 
99 



Illiterates. 





u 


ui . 


03 . 




03 "3 


a>3 


^a 




-° 3 


^ 


03 03 
03 O 


Group. 


si 


9 © 
o 




3 o3 


3 o 


is © 




fcS 


£ co 


03 M 


10-11 


4 

8 


2 

7 


50 

87* 


12-14 


15, above 


27 
20 


24 
17 


89 - 
85 


Italian — Men 



Group. 



Italian — Women 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



03 T3 

^§ 

SI 
3 c8 



©3 

•0*35 

SCO 
o 

_ C3 

3 o 
£ co 



t-i . 03 • 



c5 3 

W CO 

03 03 

O C3 

t- o 

03 3 

— BQ 



68+ 

90 
96 



The illiterate 10-11 and women of the Italian illiterate group did 
poorly in this test. Seventy-five per cent of the members of all the 
other groups succeeded. The only failure in the literate 15 and above 
group was a male Armenian, 19 years old, who had attended school 
10 years and who averaged well on the other tests. 



DISCUSSION. 

In this test is involved the conversion of a fixed association into a 
demand association. The order of week days has to be reversed by 
the subject. It is a new demand upon him; in many cases he has 
never done it before. There are several mental processes by which 
he can come forth with the correct response. The sagacity of the 
normal immigrant enables him to select a method, and by voluntarily 
attending to the method he accomplishes the task. One method is 
to enumerate to oneself the days of the week in the regular order, to 
pronounce aloud and retain the last day thus enumerated, and to 
repeat this method until the task is completed. Another method is 
to break up a fixed series into parts and to recite to oneself an asso- 
ciation combination such as /'Wednesday, Thursday, Friday," and 
immediately reversing it in telling it to the examiner. This method 
would be repeated until the task is finished. 

On a second examination to test controlled associative power (think- 
ing power) the days backward or any test previously used should not 

73 



74 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

be selected. If possible, a new problem should be selected, one which 
will make the subjects analyze and rearrange their fixed associations. 
Counting backwards, spelling words backwards, enumerating the 
months in a reverse order, being in the nature of new problems, would 
more easily enable the examiner to determine the presence and qual- 
ity of controlled associative power than a test in which the subject 
had perhaps been coached since the first examination. 

OPPOSITES. 

Opposites were used in this experiment at the suggestion of Prof. 
R. S. Woodworth, Department of Psychology, ColumbiaUniversity. 
Eight simple words were selected. The subject was asked to give 
words that were opposites of these 8 words. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The interpreter selected 4 words — man, day, good, inside — and 
repeatedly gave the opposites of them in order that the immigrant 
could comprehend what the test required. For instance, looking 
directly at the immigrant and moving his hand from side to side, the 
interpreter would say: "The opposite of man is woman. The oppo- 
site of woman is man. Man-woman, woman-man, man-woman." 
After explaining the opposites of the remaining words in the same 
way, he would go through the same 4 words again and again, fre- 
quently getting the immigrant to supply the correct opposite. It 
usually required three or four minutes for the immigrant to grasp the 
idea of the test. 

The test proper then began by asking the immigrant " What is the 
opposite of cold V 

If an immigrant gave an incorrect reply or if he hesitated unduly 
long, the same question was again put to him. His reply was then 
written down on his examination chart, and he was immediately 
tested with the next word, "high." 

The following 8 words were used in this test * in the order given : 

cold yes sick boy 

high rich up winter 






Hot" and "warm" were considered the correct opposites of 
cold"; "girl," "man," "grown-up person" were considered correct 
opposites of " boy " ; "healthy " and "healthy person " were considered 
correct opposites of "sick." 

i The following words, in addition to those used in the experiment, were proven to be the easiest in a 
list of 40 opposites (Woodworth suggests that they be substituted, 8 at a time, in the event of a second or 
third examination): Out, white, slow, above, north, top, wet, front, long, east, big, and love. 



TRANSITIONAL TESTS. 
RESULTS. 

The results are contained in the following table: 
Table 26. — Results of Opposites Test. 



75 





Num- 
ber 
exam- 
ined. 


5 or more correct answers. 


Less than 5 correct answers. 


Group. 


Number of aliens. 


CD 

bfl 

C3 

fl 

CD 
O 

E 

CD 


Number of aliens. 






OO «3 


+2 • 
o to 

CD S-) 
t- 03 


O co 
£1 CD 

CO 03 


4J • 
O CO 

CD S-i 

o £ 


o 

CD 
U 

u 
o 
o 


co 

u 

CD 

CO 


3 correct 
answers. 


O CO 

£ CD 


CD CD 

£^ 
O co 

-1 * 


+» • 

O CO 
CD *-• 
£ CD 

s i 

O e» 


c3 

d 

CD 
O 
>-. 
CD 
P-. 


Literates: 

9-11 


12 

25 

37 

100 

4 

8 

27 

20 
20 

10 
30 


7 
20 
17 
59 

1 

5 
13 

2 
1 

3 

5 


3 
3 

11 
22 

2 

6 

5 
2 

3 

10 


1 
1 

2 

14 

1 

2 
2 

5 
1 

3 

11 


1 
1 

2 
1 

2 
1 
3 


100 
100 

861 
96 

100 

871 
85 + 

60 
25 

90 
96| 















Hebrew,9-ll 















12-14 

15-above .... 


2 

2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


131 
4 


Illiterates: 

10-11 











12-14 










1 


12^ 


15-above 




1 

2 
2 

1 


3 

2 
1 




15 — 


Italian — 
Men , 
Women . 


1 


2 
9 


1 

3 


40 
75 


Slav- 
Men 




10 


Women . 


1 








H 













It will be seen that, with the exception of the Italian illiterate group, 
75 per cent of every group succeeded in giving the correct opposites 
in 5 out of 8 cases. Although the men of the Italian illiterate group 
dropped below the 75 per cent mark, they excelled the women. The 
Slav illiterate group made an excellent showing, the women excelling 
the men. 

DISCUSSION. 

This test was given at the end of the examination, and in a general 
way the result may be said to be in part an index of mentation after 
one and one-half hours of continuous mental work. 

On the whole, average immigrants above the age of 9 do well in 
this test after it has been properly explained to them. The test had 
been tried at Ellis Island a number of times during the past few 
years but always with unsatisfactory results. It is now thought 
that in all the trials which proved unsatisfactory the preliminary 
explanation was at fault. It is important to emphasize that the 
interpreter in explaining must go over and over the sample words 
with the immigrant until the latter understands the nature of the test. 

After this test is tried on a number of immigrants the examiner 
will become familiar with the comprehension power of the normal 
subject. In the preliminary explanation, when simple words are 
used, the rapidity with which the subject understands what is wanted 
of him is perhaps an index of his comprehension power. 

This is a test in controlled association and permits of slight if any 
variation in the reply. 



76 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Should this test be used at repeated examinations, it is obvious that 
a series of new words would have to be used (see footnote, p. 74). 
Familiarity with the test and learning ability should enable the 
immigrant to make a better score at the second examination than he 
does at the first. 

Many immigrants showed that their mentation was striving in the 
right direction, even if they did not name the exact opposite. Exam- 
ples of this kind were "female" for the opposite of "boy," "winter" 
for the opposite of "spring." Careful attention to mistakes of this 
kind is necessary on the part of the examiner and will assist in 
differentiating lack of native ability from ignorance. 

Many of the Kussians, and more especially the Euthenians, failed 
on the opposite of "yes." It is certain that their score would have 
been higher had another simple word been substituted. 

FIVE ANIMALS. 

The ability to recognize the pictures of animals was tested by 
placing pictures of a horse, cow, pig, donkey, and dog * in succession 
in front of the immigrant and exposing each picture sufficiently long 
for the alien to name the animal which was represented. 

This test was performed on a comparatively small number of immi- 
grants. Forty could not be included as they had been given the 
Inverted Picture Test. (See p. 77.) 

The test was considered a failure if a single mistake was made. 

RESULTS. 

The results are given in the following table: 

Table 27. — Results of Five Animals Test. 



Literates. 








\- • 


i- . 


© . 




©T3 


«"3 


fts 




•° R 


-oia 


rt w 


Group. 


S'l 




R CO 

© © 




fl o3 


3 © 


bt « 




fcS 


zS 


© 3 
Ph n 


9-11 


8 
20 


6 

8 


75 
40 


Hebrew, 9-11 


12-14 


30 
69 


24 
58 


80 
84+ 


15-above 





Illiterates. 





I- • 


t-i . 


© . 




•*$ 


©•g 


03 3 




&G 


*1 


+jw 


Group. 


si 


a <v 


R co 

88 




a a 


n 6 


fe « 




fcS 


£3 


© 3 
Ph w 


10-11 


2 
6 


2 
5 


100 
83£ 


12-14 


15-above 


19 
14 


13 
10 


68+ 
71+ 


Italian: Men 



Group. 



Italian: Women. 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



©•o 
^R 



CO 
d w 



(H . © . 



f-H CO 

H CO 

© © 

o © 

>- o 

© 3 

Ph w 



75 

70 
32 



DISCUSSION. 

Owing to the small number of subjects examined no definite con- 
clusions should be drawn from this test in regard to the results 
obtained by the different groups. It is safe to say, however, that 
to give correctly the names of the 5 animals here presented is not 
altogether an easy matter for immigrants. 



A picture of a St. Bernard dog was used. 



TRANSITIONAL TESTS. 



77 



In order to recognize the animals portrayed, the immigrant must 
be familiar with them, and must be able to make a discrimination 
between these animals and those of similar appearance. It is possible 
that some have never seen dogs similar to the one here pictured. 

Many of the failures were due to the fact that the alien was not 
sufficiently specific in his reply, as when he said horse for donkey. 
This was the most common mistake. It may sometimes have been 
due to the fact that he had never seen a donkey. 

The following are examples of the mistakes made, the name to the 
left indicating the picture: 



(bull, 
cow I ox. 
[steer. 



(colt, 
donkey <mule. 

I little horse. 



dog 



tiger. 

wolf. 

lion. 

bear. 

cat. 



Pig< 



buffalo, 
ox. 
cow. 
deer. 



The picture of the horse is the only one about which no mistake 
was made. The pig was called ox, cow, and deer by three children 
of the Hebrew literate group. 

INVERTED ANIMALS. 

The pictures of 5 animals — horse, cow, donkey, pig, dog — were 
presented in an up-side-down position in order to see if this baffling * 
would interfere with the immigrant's perceptive powers. 

A mistake in naming 1 animal was sufficient for the whole test to be 
considered a failure. Twenty-six out of 40 immigrants tested suc- 
ceeded in making the correct perceptions in the case of all 5 animals. 
Practically all of them succeeded in correctly naming 3 or 4 of the 
animals. This ability to name the pictures of these animals correctly 
when in an up-side-down position was found in several immigrant 
children of 3 and 4 years of age. What was said in regard to the 
Animal Recognition Test is likewise applicable to this test. 

The tabulated results follow : 

Table 28. — Results of Inverted Animals Test. 





Literates 






Group. 


Number 
exam- 
ined. 


Number 

success- 
ful. 


Percentage 
success- 
ful. 


9-11 


4 

8 

8 

11 


3 
4 
6 

7 


75 
50 
75 
63J 


Hebrew 9-11 

12-14 


15-above 





Illiterates. 



Group 



12-14 

15-above 

Slav women 



Number 


Number 


exam- 


success- 


ined. 


ful. 


1 


1 


3 


2 


5 


3 



Percent- 
age 

success- 
ful. 



100 
663 
60 



1 A purposive attempt to interfere with perception. 



78 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 
COLORS. 



The ability to recognize colors was determined by placing 4 col- 
ored cards — red, black, green, yellow — in front of the immigrant and 
getting him to name the colors. 

RESULTS. 

The results are given in the following table: 

Table 29 .—Results of Color Test. 

Illiterates. 



Literates. 






Group. 


©"3 

^ © 

•° s 

3 o3 

Z * 

£ © 


© 3 

as 

3 © 


© • 

B w 
© © 
© © 

S- © 


9-11 


12 
25 
37 
98 


11 

22 
35 

87 


91| 

88 

94*+ 

m+ 


Hebrew 9-11 

12-14 


15-above 





Group. 


©"3 

& B 

si 

3 o3 


•-. . 

©3 
-eg 

B © 

w © 

3 w 


© . 

C3 3 

3 W 

s§ 


10-11 


4 

8 

27 

20 


4 

7 

24 

16 


100 
87| 

88R 
80 


12-14.... 


15-above 


Italian: Men 



Group. 



©T3 
•°B 

a a 

3 03 
^© 



Italian: Women 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



©3 

SKI 



18 



21 



© © 

o o 

t-, © 
© 3 
Pi w 



90 

80 
70 



DISCUSSION. 

When a failure occurred, it usually pertained to one color. Ex- 
ceptionally the subject failed in giving the color of two cards. An 
example of this was the fifth man of the Slav illiterate group. This 
man gave pink for red and blue for green. Some of the mistakes 
were the calling of — 



Brown. 


Blue ] 




Cloth 


Chestnut 




Coffee 


Heavenly 


•instead of green 


Dark 


linstead of black. Violet 




Gray 


Yellow J 




Indigo 


Blue 1 


Lead 


Pink linstead of red. 




Yellow 





The most frequent mistake was to give another color for green. 
It is thought that the mistakes were more often due to ignorance 
than to a real lack of discriminative ability; however, color blindness 
probably played an important part where mistakes were made. 

Seventy-five per cent of every group, except the women of the 
Slav illiterate group, succeeded in correctly naming the four colors. 

It is interesting to note that the women of the Italian illiterate 
group excelled the women of the Slav illiterate group. They also 
excelled the men of their own group, as well as the men of the Slav 
group. A fact worth noticing also is the perfect record made by 
the 4 members of the illiterate 10-11 group. 



TRANSITTO'NAL TESTS. 



79 



COINS. 

Each immigrant was questioned as to how many small coins of his 
country were equivalent in value to a large coin. For instance, 
Italians were asked, "How many soldi constitute a lire?" Russians 
were asked, (l How many kopecks are equivalent to a ruble V J Ruth- 
enians were questioned as to the number of kritzas that could be 
exchanged for a gulden. 

From the following table it will be observed that at least 75 per 
cent of every group succeeded in giving the correct answer to this 

question: 

Table 30. — Results of Coin Test. 



Literates. 



Group. 



9-11 

Hebrew, 9-11 

12-14 

15-above 



3 c3 



3 

SCO 

3 o 

£3 



12 
25 
37 
99 



12 

25 
35 
98 



O O 

<& 3 

Pi CO 



100 
100 
94i+ 
99 - 



Illiterates. 



Group. 



10-11 

12-14 

15-above. . . . 
Italian: Men 



SI 

3 o3 



®3 



3 e> 
h, 3 



C3 . 

tuo-3 
o3 3 



t - 5 



75 

871 

100 

100 



Group. 



ai 

3 « 



Italian: Women. 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



a>*5 

•*-' CO 

Sco 
3 

3 o 






P* co 

90 

100 

83J 



WEIGHTS. 

The ability to discriminate weights was tested by placing 5 cubes 
of different weights on the examining table in front of the subject and 
getting him to arrange them in order of their weight. Two trials were 
allowed. 

The cubes were made of wood, were a little more than 1 cubic inch 
in size, and contained different quantities of lead in their interior. 
Their weights were as follows: 12.3 grams, 16.8 grams, 22 grams, 24 
grams, 38.2 grams. 

The results were as follows: 







Table 31.- 


-Results of Weights Test. 












i 



03 
« . 

®-d 

j. a 

g 

3 


Number success- 
ful. 


Percentage suc- 
cessful. 


Group. 


B 

03 

© . 

•d 

t- a? 
» a 

.Q— « 

B 
3 


Number success- 
ful. 


■ 

o 

3 

CO 

®*3 


Group. 


Eh 


e4 

"a 

Eh 


*c3 
O 

Eh 


3 

Eh 


CN 

Eh 


'a 
o 
Eh 


"3. co 
3 <u 
go 

E 

9 

P-, 


Literates: 

9-11 


12 
25 
37 

99 

4 

7 


12 
19 

28 
75 

4 
6 


6 

7 
17 

1 


12 
25 
35 

92 

4 

7 


100 
100 

94J+ 
92J+ 

100 
100 


Illiterates — Con. 

15, above 

Italian — 

Men 

Women . . 

Slav- 
Men 

Women.. 


27 

20 
20 

10 
29 


19 

14 
15 

7 
21 


5 

5 
1 

3 
5 


24 

19 
16 

10 
26 


89 - 

95 
80 

100 

89i + 


Hebrew, 9-11.. 
12-14 


15-above 

Illiterates: 

10-11 


12-14 





It will be noticed that 75 per cent of the immigrants of every group 
succeeded in this test. Perhaps the most interesting result is that, of 



80 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

41 immigrants under the age of 12, all succeeded. Above the age of 
9 it would appear that the ability to arraage these weights is inde- 
pendent of age and formal schooling. 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A HOUSE AND A STABLE. 

Each immigrant was asked " What is the difference between a house 
and a stable ? 

If the essential idea that a house is for people and a stable is for 
animals or for certain kinds of animals was expressed or implied, the 
test was considered as having been satisfactorily passed. 

Satisfactory replies by certain illiterates are here given exactly as 
translated by the interpreter : 

Is the wall between. Stable is used for the donkey; house is used for the furniture, 
seats, trunks, and people. (Italian, age 16, male.) 

House is where we live and have our kitchen; stable is where we have our animals. 
(Italian, age 18, male.) 

House where we live and where there is furniture; in the stable the cattle eat and 
sleep. (Italian, age 18, male.) 

House is to eat in and sleep in ; stable is to put horses in. (Italian, age 21, male.) 

There is a great difference; the stable is not like the house; (further pressed) house 
is to live in, stable is for beasts. (Italian, age 23, male.) 

In the one people live; one is for the animals. (Italian, age 24, male.) 

Much difference; stable all the domestic animals sleep. Human beings sleep in the 
house. (Italian, age 27, male.) 

House is for persons and the stable smells bad (difficult to classify). (Italian, age 27, 
male.) 

The difference in my house is the family lives upstairs, stable is underneath. (Diffi- 
cult to classify.) (Italian, age 29, male.) 

The following are some of the unsatisfactory replies made by 

illiterates : 

You are here and the stable is out there. (Italian, age 16, male.) 

House is bigger and finer than the stable. (Italian, age 19, male.) 

The neatness, the cleanliness. (Italian, age 25, female.) 

To have rooms, for stabling. (Italian, age 25, female.) 

House is to sleep in, and the stable is where we throw the filth. (Italian, age 25, 

female.) 
House has a floor, stable has not. (Russian Ruthenian, age 22, male.) 
In home there are chimney, stove, and windows, there are none in the stable. 

(Russian Pole, age 28, male.) 
Same building, house is better looking, stable is not good looking. (Austrian 

Ruthenian, age 16, female.) 
House is being blessed, stable is not. (Russian, age 20, female.) 
In the house we are living. (Russian, age 20, female.) 
House has windows, stable has none. ( Russian, age 27, female.) 
Stable is dirty, house is clean. (Spaniard, age 18 male.) 
House is where you live, table is in the house. (Roman, age 25, female.) 
The wall is between the house and the stable. ( Spaniard, age 27, male.) 
House is clean, stable is full of dirt. (Spaniard, age 42, male.) 
House has a roof, stable has not. (Russian Hebrew, age 10, female.) 
Stable is dirtier, no ot,her difference. (Italian, age 12, male.) 



TRANSITIONAL TESTS. 81 

Table 32. — Results of test regarding difference between house and stable. 



Literates. 


Illiterates. 


Group. 


■-> . 

3 « 
£c3 


®3 

S » 


"S » 

M CO 

o O 


Group. 


- ■ 

si 

4 

8 

27 

20 


® 3 

as 

3 o 


Percentage 
successful. 


Group. 


— 

0>"3 

si 


rt co 

B « 

3 o 


WM 

3 co 

— CO 

c o 
o <y 

S- O 

O 3 

In CO 


9-11 


12 
24 
37 
99 


10 

22 
32 

84 


83^ 
91§ 

84* 


10-11 


3 

7 
23 
18 


75 
87i 
85+ 
90 


Italian: Women . . 
Slav: 

Men 


20 

10 
30 


17 

8 
26 


85 


Hebrew 9-11 


12-14 




12-14 


15-above 


80 


15-above 


Italian: Men 


Women 


86§ 





CHRISTMAS OR PEYSACH. 

The question "What is Christmas?" or in the case of Hebrews 
"What is Peysach?" was put to each individual. Replies em- 
bodying the ideas "birth of Christ" or "the deliverance of the Jews 
from Egyptian slavery" were considered correct. 

Many immigrants responded by saying "I don't know." Of other 
incorrect replies, the following are given to show how some average 
or normal immigrants responded to the question: 

What is Christmas? 
Illiterates: 

Italian (male, age 13) : After Christmas comes summer. 

Italian (male, age 14): Grand feast all over the world. 

Spanish (male, age 16): Holiday, souls are then on a journey. 

Spanish (male, age 16): Feast of Christmas. 

Russian Hebrew (female, age 17): Holiday once a year. 

Spanish (male, age 18) : They have a great feast. 

Spanish (male, age 27): It is a great feast when we eat well for 3 or 4 days. 

Spanish (male, age 31): Last month in the year. 

Spanish (male, age 31): When Christ arose. 

Spanish (male, age 32): That is when we eat and drink well. 

Spanish (male, age 39) : Feast of holiday. 

Spanish (male, age 42) : It is in remembrance at the end of the year, great feast. 



Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 

Italian 
Italian 
Italian 
Italian 



male, age 16) : A grand feast. 

male, age, 16): Feast of Jesus, when relatives reunite. 



male, age 18): Feast. 

male, age 19): Holiday, eat more than on other days. 
male, age 20): A feast in which a variety of sweet things are made, 
male, age 21): A feast which you call Christmas, 
male, age 23): Great holiday, 
male, age 24): 25th of December, 
male, age 24): Feast of Our Lord, Jesus, 
male, age 30) : Holiday, 
male, age 30): Child was born, 
female, age 16): Make a great feast, 
female, age 19): Good feast. 

female, age 20) : It is a great feast in which we eat, drink, and are happy, 
female, age 24): Grand feast, 
female, age 25) : Great holiday. 
Austria Ruthenian (male, age 16): They bless the waters then. 
1970°— 17 6 



82 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Illiterates — Continued. 

Russian (male, age 18): It is a great holiday. 

Russian Pole (male, age 20): Have to go to church and pray. 

Russian Ruthenian (male, age 22) : Certain religious services. 

Austria Ruthenian (male, age 24): Jesus was tortured. 

Russian Pole (female, age 17): A holiday for the whole year. 

Russian (female, age 17): Great holiday, bless the food. 

Russian (female, age 18): Christ suffered. 

Austria Ruthenian (female, age 18): Christening of Christ. 

Russian (female, age 20): Ascension of Christ. 

Russian (female, age 20) : A great holiday. 

Austria Ruthenian (female, age 20): Christ has risen. 

Austria Ruthenian (female, age 23): Christ's supper. 

What is Peysach (substituted for Hebrews)? 
Literates: 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 9) : Because the Jews in Egypt had a hard time and did 

not eat the right bread. 
Russian Hebrew (male, age 10) : We left Egypt then. 
Russian Hebrew (male, age 10): Not allowed to eat bread. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 10): We go to the synagogue and eat matzoth. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 10): Jews have been in Egypt and ate unleaven 

bread. 
Rusian Hebrew (female, age 10): Because we are Jews. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 10): Making biscuits. 
Russian Hebrew (male, age 11): When the Jews escaped from Egypt they took 

dough and baked it without waiting for it to ferment. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 11): Jews ate in Egypt unleaven bread. 

The following table shows the low percentage of correct responses 
in each group: 

Table 33. — Results of Christmas or Peysach Test. 



Literates. 



Group. 



9-11 

Hebrew 9-11 

12-14 

15-above 




CD 

ej 3 
-t^> CO 
©£ 
© © 

u © 
3 

© £ 



66| 
40 

69+ 



Illiterates. 





A 


A 


© 


Group. 


© . 

a* 

K 03 


3 
w 

(-i 3 
JS v. 
3 o> 
5 © 


r c e n t a 

uccessful 




a 


3 


© w 




ft 


ft 


&. 


10-11 


4 

8 

26 


1 

2 

8 


25 
25 

30£+ 


12-14 


15-above 


Italian: Men 


20 


11 


55 



Group. 



Italian: Women. 
Slav: 

Men 

Women 



X 


• 


© . 


3 


-a 


co . 


V (=1 


-a 




© co 


X> co 


as 


3 


3 


ft 


ft 


20 


13 


10 


4 


30 


17 



Ceo 
CD 
© © 



65 

40 
56| 



The above table shows that no group succeeded in this test. 

The illiterates performed the test almost as satisfactorily as the 
literates. The ability to express ideas in suitable words has much 
to do with success in a test of this kind, and it would seem that the 
small amount of schooling which the literates have generally received 
is of little benefit to them in expressing their ideas. In some instances 
the replies will show what is uppermost in the subject's mind as well 
as his small amount of experience. Many of the responses bring out 
the observation power and conceptual power of untrained immigrants. 



TESTS IN REASONING (NONARITHMETICAL). 
GEOGRAPHIC PUZZLE. 

The Geographic Puzzle, evolved at Ellis Island several years ago 
from a series of similar cardboard puzzles, is one of the first puzzle 
tests used in connection with the mental examination of arriving 
immigrants. It is typical of a large class of puzzles. The Geographic 
is a simple jig-saw puzzle, 1 and in its united form is 6} inches long, 
4} inches wide, and about f-inch thick. (The exact dimensions are 
unimportant.) 

This puzzle consists of a body or central part irregularly indented 
by 6 eccentric clefts, and 6 pieces, each having 1 or 2 straight mar- 
gins and an eccentric curved margin. The 6 pieces fit into the 6 
clefts of the body, so that when all 7 parts are together a rectangular 
figure is formed. Figures 40-42 show the shape, arrangement, and 
relative size of the pieces. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The body of the Geographic Puzzle was placed on the examination 
table in front of the immigrant, with its lower border near him. 
The 6 pieces were placed together at the right of the puzzle, 3 pieces 
resting on their anterior polished surfaces and 3 on their posterior 
rough surfaces. The experimenter told the subject to watch closely 
while he slowly took piece 1 from the pile and placed it in its proper 
position, that is, in the cleft of the lower border. The experimenter 
likewise placed pieces 2 and 3 in their proper clefts. (Fig. 42.) 

After permitting the alien to observe the half-completed puzzle 
for three or four seconds, the puzzle was disarranged and put aside. 
The subject's attention was then taken from this puzzle by using 
the counting-dot experiment. (See 44.) Immediately after the 
immigrant had counted the dots, the Geographic Puzzle was again 
placed in front of him, this time in a reversed position, so that cleft 4 
was near the alien. The pieces were placed indiscriminately, three 
resting on their anterior surfaces and three on their posterior surfaces. 

The alien was instructed to place the pieces in their proper clefts. 
Time was taken with stop watch from the second the subject touched 
the first piece until the puzzle was successfully completed, and all 
false moves made by the subject were carefully counted. Inability 
to complete this puzzle in five minutes (300 seconds) was considered 
a failure. If the subject approached a certain cleft with the wrong 
piece, then remained still, reflected, and returned the piece to the 
pile, he was not credited with a false move. It would be considered 
a false move only when the piece actually entered the cleft. A piece 

1 This and similar puzzles can be made by scroll saw out of maple, ash, or other woods. 

83 



84 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




U<5. public Health Service. 

Fig. 40.— Geographic puzzle, as presented to immigrant for solution. 

Fig. 41.— Geographic puzzle with first three pieces in their proper clefts. Immigrant was shown puzzle in 
this form before he commenced to solve it, after which it was disarranged. 

Fig. 42.— Geographic puzzle, with pieces in their proper clefts. 

(Lined pieces are wrong side up.) 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



85 



placed in its proper cleft on its posterior or rough surface instead of 
on its anterior polished surface was recorded as a false move. 

In exceptional cases, when the puzzle was almost completed in 
300 seconds, the alien was permitted to finish it, the few additional 
seconds being also recorded, though the performance was scored as a 
failure. If the immigrant failed in 300 seconds or in this additional 
time, the puzzle was then disarranged, the alien was told to watch 
carefully while the examiner took each piece from the pile and«slowly 
placed it in its proper cleft in the body of the puzzle. 

As soon as the subject had succeeded in working the puzzle, or, in 
the event of failure, as soon as the examiner had shown him how to 
do it, the puzzle was immediately disarranged. It was then placed 
before him exactly as it was presented to him at trial 1, in order to 
ascertain what improvement a second trial would show. 

RESULTS. 

The following tables give the detailed results in the case of certain 
of the groups: 

Table 34. — Results of Geographic Test in the case of literate 15 and above group. 



Men (51 examined). 



Alien's 
number 
in group. 



1.. 

2.. 
3.. 
4.. 
5.. 

6.. 
7.. 

8.. 
9.. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 



Trial No. 1. 



>& 



1 



167 
26 
45 
48 
75 
65 

130 
54 
39 
58 

117 

106 
32 
63 
42 

190 
78 
80 
54 
29 
62 
75 
74 

160 
45 
48 
35 
54 

106 
3 Failed. 



<x> 

i— i 03 

<2S 

^_ CO 

sa- 
fes 

r 

3 



Trial No. 2. 






16 

5 
4 
1 
1 

13 
1 

3 

12 
3 

2 
6 

14 
6 
6 
1 
1 
5 
5 
6 

10 
3 
8 
1 
1 
4 

35 



100 
25 
22 
33 
40 
38 
37 
35 
49 
49 
75 
47 
94 
69 
22 
29 
43 
31 
23 
48 
39 
23 
37 
119 
23 
36 
30 
50 
30 
77 



V)T3 
rs 03 

£s 



7 


4 


3 


4 
5 
2 
1 
6 
6 
2 

2 
1 
4 
4 

3 
8 
1 
7 
1 

4 I 



17 I 



C3-H 

«.2 



h<fi 



tuofl 






2^ 

o °3 

co o> 
d M 

<v +* 
;d o3 



Women (49 examined). 































X 


"x" 






X 
X 


X 
X 


















X 


X 


























.... 


X 


1 





Alien's 
number 
in group. 



Trial No. 1. 



8.. 
9.. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 



v-i'd 



145 
68 

140 

27 

89 

42 

» Failed. 

124 

105 
76 
78 
75 
87 

100 
27 

109 

166 
72 
32 
44 
53 
2 Failed. 
30 
24 
48 

167 
37 
85 

102 
91 



o 

s . 

o 

as 

o_ CO 

<£> d. 

a 



Trial No. 2. % 



°$ 



15 


45 


2 


30 


2 


116 


2 


35 


7 


40 


2 


39 


29 


66 


10 


32 


17 


30 


3 


20 


7 


21 


8 


20 


10 


35 


/ 


46 


3 


15 


10 


28 


! 1 4 


56 


9 


26 


3 


22 


4 


43 


4 


27 


35 


29 





24 





35 


2 


117 


15 


126 


3 


24 


7 


39 


7 


34 


9 


35 1 



> 

o 

s . 

Q 

42 03 

aa 



'k a 



5 

2 
4 
3 
2 
7 
1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 

1 
4 
2 
3 
5 
2 
3 
1 
3 
11 
10 
2 
4 
2 
1 



'Si 



(-1 CO 

s£ 

d c3 

cS ~ 

"^ d 
co 5 

q ° 
<p 

■A 
< 



■-efl 

2-S 

O fl3 
dJ3 



2 a 

a c 



a e3 



x 



X 



1 Succeeded after 393 seconds. 
8 Succeeded after 303 seconds. 
« Those who failed at first trial were shown how to put puzzle together before second trial 



86 

Table 34. 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

-Results of Geographic Test in the case cf literate 15 and above group — Con. 





Men (51 


examined). 




Women (49 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


© 

CO 

©.2 

as 
© »- 

fl 03 

co fl 
© 

< 


CO 

© 

©^ 

a a 
aS 

A -a 

a ? 

CO qj 

a to 
©+j 
S 03 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


© 
co 
-m . 

©.2 

a -*j 

*^ CO 

© S-. 

2^ 
a c3 

a <s 

'r?-a 

^£ 
co a 
a o 
_© 

3 


co 

© 

o"os 

a '2 
©^ 

o3 H 
© ' , ~ l 

£s 

a^ 

"- -a 

as 

CO aj 

a co 

.© +a 
S3 03 
<1 


Alien's 
nurrbdr 
in group. 


© 

s- 
co 

a 

o 

© "a 

co © 

~f 

M 

© 

a 

3 
55 


© 

> 

a . 
© 

31 03 

■" a 

tH © 

£ cJ 
B 

a 
55 


© 

CO 

*a 

a 

O 

© T3 

CO © 

~f 

© 

a 

5 


© 

> 
o 

a . 
© 

©-a 

co o3 

c Pi 

*a 
a 


© 

CO 

ts 

a 
o 

©T3 

CO © 

H 

u 
© 

a 

3 

55 


© 
> 
o 

a . 
.~ ® 

SB 

«_ CO 

c a 

u © 

,8 a 
a 

a 
55 


© 

CO 

a 

o 

f"l • 

©"a 

CO « 

v--a 

o a 

cr 

© 

a 

a 
55 


© 
o 

a . 

©3 
.2 a 

«£ a 

<M CO 

-■a 

»- © 

a 

a 
2 


31 v.. 


59 
50 

107 
77 
70 

122 
37 
92 

105 
62 

107 

137 
40 

162 

157 
79 
37 
30 
55 
40 

117 


7 
6 
9 
< 

9 

4 

> 3 

3 

13 

3 

2 

13 

5 

18 

11 

10 

2 

7 

4 



15 


22 
49 
75 
67 
37 

106 
20 
49 
52 
16 
50 
50 
25 
38 

154 
25 
19 
15 

277 
25 
82 


i 

6 
12 
4 
3 
3 

4 
4 


3 
1 
3 
9 

2 

23 

6 




31 


241 
45 
37 

202 
41 
71 
64 
35 
50 
82 

187 
30 

173 
82 
53 
38 
38 

202 

252 


16 
3 



20 

1 

7 

8 

5 

7 

10 

23 

1 

9 

3 

7 

3 

1 

22 

11 


37 

38 
40 

108 
24 
19 
20 
25 
20 

163 
55 
25 
22 
66 
22 
23 
46 
35 
52 


4 
3 

16 


1 
1 
2 

7 
1 

5 
2 

4 
3 
3 






32 






32 






33 


.... 


X 


33 


X 




31 


31 




35 






35 






3G 






36 






3 






3 






33 





V 


38 






3J 




30 






40 


! 


40 


X 


X 


41 






41 


42 




i 


42 






43 




1 


43 






44 






44 






45 




i 


45 






40 




• i 


46 






47 






47 


X 


X 


48 






48 


49 


X 


X 1 


49 






50 








51 

















Table 35. — Results of Geographic Test in the case of Italian illiterate group. 



Men (20 examined). 


Women (20 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 




© 

CO 

03 ~ 

©.2 

© (H 

°+^ 

a 03 

■-i, a 
a 03 
'r'-a 

03 T-C 

co g 

a ° 
© 


CO 

© 

O o3 

S-c 

©•^ 
CO +- 
-r CO 
03 ■- 

© 

O 03 

a« 

hr 03 

c^ 

5 "^ 
'/ -a 
o3 a 

a r 

CO © 

a w 

© +j 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 




© 

CO 

+3 . 

03--. 

a^ 

© s- 

^«a 

a£ 

tut, a 
a 03 

21 

«3rr-t 

^ a 

CO g 

a ° 
© 


CO 

© 

E-C 

©•^ 

CO +^ 

^. M 

a« 

a +j 

a © 

CO © 

a M 
.2 m 

<! 


Alien's 

number 

in group. 


© 

CO 

-a 
a 

o 

© ~ 
CO © 

Fh 

n 

u 

© 

a 

a 


© 

a . 

©-rt 
.J? 08 

.ss 

,_, CO 

c a 
®a 
a 

a 

55 


© 

H 

CO 

-a 
a 
o 

© T) 

CO © 
© 

a 

a 


© 
> 


a t 
© © 

co »a 

3| 

g © 

^ a 
a 


■ 
£ 

CO 

-a 
a 
. 

©^a 

CO © 

M 

s-i 'ri 

•!■ 

© 

Jo 

a 

a 
55 


1 

© 

O 

a . 

© 
©xj 

« 03 

^a 

°a 

a 

a 
55 


© 

CO 

a 



©■a 

co © 

°& 

© 

a 

a 
55 


© 
> 

c 

a . 
© 

©-a 

^ a 

k_, CO 

°a 

2 a 
a 

a 
55 


1 


175 

67 

200 

38 

119 

Failed. 

105 

130 

184 

42 

27 

109 

64 

95 

163 

124 

45 

75 

Failed. 

69 


10 

20 
2 
9 

33 
9 

21 

19 
4 
1 
1 
7 
8 

18 

12 
5 
5 

54 
9 


35 
30 
27 
26 
190 
34 
18 
45 
50 
20 
40 
35 
27 
45 
55 
26 
26 
57 
50 
15 


3 






1 


163 

125 

Failed. 

132 

Failed. 

94 

188 

100 

108 

56 

65 

35 

247 

236 

Failed. 

152 

105 

74 

49 

59 


13 
6 

20 

10 

34 

13 

2 

13 

8 

8 

11 

5 

32 

17 

30 

21 

15 

3 

1 

4 


22 

96 

160 

200 

46 

Failed 

119 

132 

43 

55 

50 

37 

74 

40 

45 

116 

58 

29 

98 

39 


2 
5 
9 

17 
5 

37 
2 

26 
6 

13 
7 
2 

11 
3 
5 

16 
7 






2 






2 






3 








3 






4 


2 

23 
2 






4 


X 


Y 


5... 


X 


X 


5 




6 


6 






7 






7 


X 
X 




8 


7 
3 
2 
4 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
7 






8 


y 


9 






9 




10 






10 


.... 


y 


11.. 


X 


X 


11 




12 


12 


X 




13 






13 




14.. 






14 






15 






15 






16. 






16 






17.. 






17 






18. . 






18 






19 






19 


11 
3 


X 


y 


20... 






20 



















TESTS IN REASONING. 87 

Table 36. — Results of Geographic Test in the case of Slav illiterate group. 



Men (10 examined). 


Women (30 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


© 

CO 

©2 

a£ 
© (i 

i-iC-J 

O 

5 03 
SuoCl 

.9 2 

03 TS 

co g 

a ° 

_© 

3 


co 
© 

11 

©■^ 
co -t- 5 

— CO 

a t-, 
«->cG 
© 

O o3 

5 a 

^5 
5 "^ 

S ° 

K o 
CO © 

© +s 
*^ c3 

< 


Alien's 
numLer 
in group. 


Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


o 
© 

+j . 

03— . 
©2 

a£ 

■-£ +j 

CO 

© ■— 

s c 
at? 

.5 2 

M S 

a ° 

3 

< 


CO 

© 

IS 
X« 

© 

a a 
r c« 

08 fl 

co © 
C w 
© +j 

^ o3 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


© 

co 

a 

o 

©T3 
CO © 

t-l 

°'l 

© 

g 


© 
o 

a . 
© 

.2 a 

c c 
t- © 
©a 

a 

3 


© 

co 

5 

©~ 

co © 

H 

*& 

© 

a 


© 
> 
o 

a 
®3 

CO'O 

£a 

t-i © 

*l 
a 

3 


© 

M 

CO 

C5 
O 

03 ~ 

co © 
H 

°I 

© 

"a 

a 
"A 


© 
> 

o 

a . 

© 

©73 
, OT 03 

£3 
c a 

® a 
a 

3 


© 

M 
CO 

PI 
O 

8« 

CO © 
H 

*i 

© 

a 

ft 


© 
> 
o 

a . 
© 

©t3 
, OT 03 

5S 

<— . CO 

°a 

a 


1 


44 

49 

77 

68 

149 

132 

128 

51 

56 

30 


l 

3 

7 
3 
8 
6 
8 
5 
5 
1 


24 
34 
25 
30 
72 
21 
106 
25 
40 
35 








1 


77 

174 
64 
71 

172 
68 

179 
40 
59 

163 
44 

108 

184 
58 
58 
59 
82 
59 
34 
50 
94 
77 

102 
51 

163 
84 
55 

115 

106 
85 


9 

10 

1 

9 

21 

6 

18 

2 

6 

19 

4 

10 

12 

5 

5 

3 

6 

6 

3 
11 

7 

14 

3 

4 

10 

8 

8 

10 

15 


23 
26 
55 
67 
34 
53 

■;.-) 

34 
54 

35 
19 
37 
53 
26 
48 
34 
26 
26 
51 
60 
48 
43 
76 
36 
59 
24 
53 
47 
39 
84 


2 
1 
2 

11 
6 
8 
7 
2 
5 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
3 
2 
2 
1 
5 
4 
1 

12 
2 
3 






2 








2 






3 


1 






3 





X 


4 






4 


X 


5 


5 






5 




<5 






6 


.... 


X 


7 


7 
1 
2 
1 










8 

S 

10 






8 










9 






X 




10 








11 








12 








13 








14 








15 








16 








11 


.... 




. 


18 






19 


X 
X 


Y 




20 


V 




21 






22 






23 






24 






25 








26 








27 


7 

4 

2 

13 








28 








23 








33 













SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

In the 4 literate groups 174 immigrants were examined, 169, or 
97+ per cent, of whom succeeded within 300 seconds at the first 
trial. The time ranged in all of these successful cases from 23 to 
260 seconds. The average time for the literate groups combined was 
86 seconds. The best average time (74 seconds) was made by the 
boys of the literate 12-14 group; the slowest average time (97 seconds) 
was made by the Hebrew literate 9-11 group. 

In the 5 illiterate groups 120 immigrants were examined, 112, or 
93 J per cent, of whom succeeded within 300 seconds at the first trial. 
The time ranged from 27 to 272 seconds. The average time for the 
combined illiterate groups was 102 J seconds. The best average 
time (78 seconds) was made by the 10 men of Slav illiterate group. 
The slowest average time (127 seconds) was that of the 7 members of 
the illiterate 12-1 4 group. 

At the first trial the average number of false moves for the 4 
literate groups w T as 7, the men of the literate 15 and above group 



88 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

making the smallest average (6). The Hebrew literate 9-11 group 
made an average of 8.- 

The average number of false moves for the 5 illiterate groups 
was 8J, the smallest number (5) being made by the 10 men of the 
Slav illiterate group and the largest number (12) being made, as 
would naturally be expected, by the illiterate 10-11 group. 

In the second trial all the literates succeeded. One hundred and 
sixty-eight of them (those who succeeded at trial 1) succeeded in an 
average time of 45 seconds, the best average time (43 seconds) 
being made by the 49 women of literate 15 and above group, the 
slowest average time (51 seconds) by the men of the same group. 

In the second trial of the illiterate groups all but one alien suc- 
ceeded. An Italian woman who succeeded at trial 1 failed at trial 2. 
One hundred and eleven illiterates succeeded in an average time of 
52 seconds, the fastest average time (41 seconds) being made by the 
10 men of the Slav illiterate group. The slowest average time (76 
seconds) was made by the 16 women of the Italian illiterate group. 

The average number of false moves at the second trial in the case 
of the literate groups was 3^, each group averaging 3 false moves, 
except the 19 girls of the literates 12-1^ group, who averaged 4 false 
moves. 

The average number of false moves at the second trial in the case 
of the 5 illiterate groups amounted to 4 J, the largest average num- 
ber of false moves (8) was made by the 16 women of the Italian illit- 
erate group; the smallest average number of false moves (2) was 
made by the 10 men of the Slav illiterate group. 

Among the literates the literate 12-1 If. group excelled the literate 15 
and above group in quickness of performance in trial 1. At trial 2 
the boys of the literate 12-1 4 group excelled the men of the literate 15 
and above group, while the reverse was true in the case of the girls 
and women, respectively, of the two groups. 

Among the illiterates the illiterate 10-11 and illiterate 12-1 4 groups 
record the slowest average time in performing the test at trial 1. 
There is little difference in the performance time of the other groups 
with the exception of the Italian women, who average a little longer 
time at the first trial. At trial 2 there is little difference in the aver- 
age performance time of the different groups — the Slav illiterate 
group making the fastest average time; the women of the Italian 
illiterate group making the slowest time. There is practically no dif- 
ference in the average number of false moves made by the different 
literate groups. Among the illiterates the average number of false 
moves in the illiterate 10-11 and the women of the Italian illiterate 
groups are largest for trial 1. At trial 2 the women of the illiterate 
15 and above and Italian illiterate groups made the largest average 
number of false moves. The men of the Italian illiterate and the 



TESTS IN REASONING. 89 

Slav illiterate groups made the smallest average number of false 
moves. There was little difference in the number of false moves 
made by the other groups at trial 2. 

In general, among the literate groups the boys and men excelled 
the girls and women in quickness of performance at trial 1. The 
boys of the literate 12-14 group excelled the girls, while the women 
of the literate 15 and above group excelled the men in quickness of 
performance at trial 2. 

In the illiterate groups the average performance time for both 
trials is faster in the case of the men than in that of the women. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

As a result of these tests, it may be concluded that: 

(1) Seventy-five per cent of the members of each group having 
successfully performed the Geographic Test, it is therefore not too 
difficult a test for arriving immigrants above the age of 9. 

(2) In the second trial the Geographic and similar ' tests are per- 
formed by arriving immigrants in less time and with a smaller number 
of false moves than in the first trial. 1 

(3) As a rule, the literate groups succeed in performing the puzzle 
in quicker time and with fewer false moves than do the illiterate 
groups. 

4) However, many illiterate immigrants and certain literate 
groups excel some of the literates. 

(5) Generally speaking, above the age of 9 there is no age differ- 
ence in the performance of this test among literates. 

(6) The younger illiterates require a little longer time and make 
more false moves than the older ones, but even here there is no 
marked difference in accomplishment. 

(7) Among the literate groups the men and boys do slightly better 
than the girls and women in the performance of the Geographic Test. 

(8) Among the illiterates this difference of performance between 
the two sexes is more marked. 

DISCUSSION. 

Points of interest in connection with the solution of the Geographic 
Puzzle are applicable to all form-board puzzles — that is, to those 
puzzles where small sections fit into recesses in a larger body. This 
sort of puzzle, however, is somewhat different from the Healy Frame 
and other puzzles, the successful performance of the latter depending 
upon a definite construction according to an abstract principle. 

In any problem presented for solution there must be present two 
elements — tha known and the unknown. If all elements of a prob- 

i In both the literate and illiterate groups at trial 2, the average time in solving the Geographic Puzzle 
and the average number of false moves are approximately one-half what they were at trial 1. 



90 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

lem are unknown to the subject, the problem can not be solved by 
him. Some subjects will be able to accomplish a great deal with 
only a partial knowledge of one or two elements — that is, they will 
be able to solve a problem if only an inkling or slight familiarity 
with some of its parts has been previously obtained. Others will 
require knowledge of many elements before they can enter into the 
problem and solve it. The variation here indicated in problem solv- 
ing is simply a variation in reasoning ability. 

Although many immigrants had seen puzzles or mechanical con- 
trivances somewhat similar to the Geographic Puzzle, some immi- 
grants, especially the illiterate from rural regions, had never before 
seen anything like the Geographic Puzzle and others had no previous 
experience which could be transferred for the purpose of solving this 
puzzle. It was for this reason that the definite principle of the test 
was shown to the subject (by placing 3 pieces in position). 

In attempting to solve this puzzle the tranquil immigrant with 
reasoning ability would carefully scrutinize the body of the puzzle 
with its various shaped clefts and the six different pieces in the pile. 
He would note that some of the pieces rested on their posterior 
rough surfaces and others on their anterior smooth surfaces. He 
would first arrange the two small pyramidal shaped pieces 1 and 4, 
as their position in the body was most obvious. Then pieces 2 and 3, 
a little more complicated, but each having its own definite cleft, 
would be placed. This process of elimination would leave pieces 5 
and 6 for final adjustment. The clefts receiving these two pieces 
coalesce, and therefore the exact positions of pieces 5 and 6 are not 
so obvious. Perhaps the subject would have to make close and 
repeated observations of the two remaining pieces and coalescing 
clefts in order to unravel the difficulty. 

This reasoning method was employed by a number of immigrants, 
and is usually found when the performance time is short and false 
moves few. Occasionally when the reasoning method was used, a 
long time was required; but even in these cases the number of false 
moves were few. 

Often, for a brief period normal immigrants used subnormal 
methods. It is only where the immigrant persists in subnormal 
methods in trial after trial and test after test that he can be con- 
sidered subnormal. The animal method (picking up the small pieces 
at random and attempting to place them without thinking of the 
similarity between cleft and piece) was used by the majority of 
immigrants at first. When this method was employed for the first 
10 to 20 seconds only it was attributed to emotional disturbances or 
some other accidental cause. Many intelligent immigrants after 
attempting for 20 seconds or longer to place the pieces in this hap- 
hazard manner would begin to think (to see similarity). They 



TESTS IN REASONING. 91 

would then accurately arrange the puzzle piece by piece, completing 
it in short order. Other immigrants would employ the so-called 
animal method for 120 seconds or 180 seconds before settling down 
to purposive thinking. 

It is believed that there is no psychological detail in the solving of 
this puzzle or in the performance of other tests that is too small to 
mention. Every action that is well done, every movement that 
shows a purpose, every reply that in any way indicates intelligence, 
and even the manner and facial expression of the subject should be 
carefully observed. It is only by paying strict attention to all these 
little details, by weighing them, and by inquiring into the whys and 
wherefores of unsatisfactory performances that a correct judgment 
as to the normality of an immigrant at the time of landing can be 
reached. 

As said above, at the second trial the performance time and false 
moves were as a rule reduced. A frequent exception to this rule is 
where the first trial is done with speed and accuracy, in which case a 
comparatively poor showing may occur at trial 2. An " ambitious" 
attitude may be the cause of a comparatively poor showing. One 
alien who solved the test very quickly with no false moves, ambitious 
to outdo the previous performance, made an extremely poor showing 
at the second trial. A self-conscious attitude, a f eeling that he is on 
trial, a feeling that disaster may result to him in the event of failure, 
and other attitudes are accountable for the poor showing that several 
normal aliens made. 

Success is delayed in some cases owing to the immigrant assuming 
that a certain segment of the puzzle should go into a certain cleft 
regardless of whether the segment and cleft are similar in form. A 
Lithuanian girl strove hard and well to perform this test but was 
acting under a similar wrong assumption. After some preliminary 
maneuvering the pieces lay on the table with their rough surfaces 
uppermost. The girl temporarily assumed that they were to enter 
the clefts just as they were. It did not occur to her to turn them over. 
False assumptions like this have cost different subjects anywhere 
from 30 to 120 seconds. 

In doing the second trial of the puzzle one immigrant placed the 
first 5 pieces in their proper places in 3 seconds, then became dis- 
turbed and spent 30 seconds in placing piece 6 in its proper cleft. 

After taking a long time to work the puzzle and after making many 
false moves some immigrants do rapid and excellent work at the 
second trial. These cases profit by experience and this in itself 
is a sign of intelligence. 

In performing this test one of the greatest causes for delay on tne 
part of the immigrant is the selecting at the start of a large piece 
instead of one of the small pyramidal pieces. One immigrant 



92 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

tenaciously held on to 1 segment, looking at it for a long time in a 
perplexed way. Others attempt to place 2 segments in the body 
of the puzzle at the same time. This usually results in delay. 

Attempting to put a segment into an impossible cleft is not always 
a sign of mental defect, but occasionally occurs in a normal person 
when temporarily disturbed. 

In extreme' cases an immigrant may attempt the test as though all 
thought were paralyzed. He continues to put every piece in every 
cleft regardless of whether similarity between cleft and piece exists. 
Later he may wake up and solve the puzzle quickly, or this dazed 
mental condition may persist throughout the entire five minutes. 
Still he may be of normal intelligence, which is proven by his excel- 
lent correlations in other tests. 

In these particular cases the immigrant's attention may be inter- 
nally directed. It may be strongly riveted on some anticipation, 
disappointment, or other affair, and at such a time his intellectual 
field is not doing itself justice. This mental state is by no means 
uncommon in the normal immigrant at the time of arrival. 

In some cases an immigrant will pick up 3 wrong segments in 
succession and endeavor to place them in a certain cleft, then he will 
pick up the right segment and instead of putting it in the cleft in 
question, will attempt to put it in another cleft. 

A Russian (No. 21) d d the test in 32 seconds with no false moves. 
During the second trial he was distracted by the ringing of bells and 
he succeeded only after 94 seconds and after making a false move. 
A Spaniard (No. 4) did the test well on the first trial; then he became 
much disturbed. At the second trial he could not properly place a 
single segment. He exclaimed, "I am going to pieces on account of 
my trouble." 

At times, when disturbed, an immigrant has removed a piece after 
it had been properly placed in the body of the puzzle. 

In the performance of this and other tests the attention may 
wander. The subject may look out of the window, stare at some 
object in the room, or assume a perplexed look. A feeling of uncer- 
tainty as to what it all means, fatigue, disappointment at not imme- 
diately being landed are accountable, singly or severally, in different 
cases for such behavior. 

Better results can always be obtained in working this and similar 
puzzles if a large table upon which the subject can rest his arms is 
used. 

Many failures in this as well as in other puzzle tests are undoubtedly 
due to defective vision. In order to perform this test successfully, as 
well as the Relationship Test (see p. 102), a broad visual field is nec- 
essary so as to take in at a glance the body of the puzzle with its 



TESTS IN REASONING. 93 

clefts as well as the pile containing the variously shaped pieces. Two 
intelligent immigrants with an extremely narrow, visual field had 
much difficulty in doing the test. They could see only one' cleft at 
a time, and then shifting their gaze to the pile, could see only one 
piece at a time. In attempting to perform this test they had to shift 
a piece from cleft to cleft, each time closely observing the particular 
cleft. These same two aliens performed the Healy Frame Test (see 
below) with ease. It may be well to reiterate that occasionally all 
sorts of abnormal symptoms are encountered within the range of 
normality. On account of their learning ability the normals show 
much improvement in doing this test at the second trial. 

The immigrants who have made a poor showing at both trials in 
this particular experiment have retrieved themselves in the successful 
performance of other tests, both concrete and abstract. It must be 
distinctly remembered that this discussion is limited to a single 
examination for a given individual. Many peculiarities here noted 
would probably not occur at a second examination on the follow- 
ing day. 

HEALY'S CONSTRUCTION TEST A. 

The Healy Frame Test devised by Dr. William Healy, of Chicago, 
has been extensively used at immigration stations in the mental 
examinations of aliens for the past two and one-half years. The test 
is a construction problem and consists in arranging 5 small pieces so 
as to fill completely the interior of a frame. As. used in this experi- 
ment the part of the test within the frame measures 4 inches long 
and 3 inches wide, the recess which received the 5 pieces and con- 
sequently the pieces themselves being less than one-fourth of an inch 
thick. It is important that the individual pieces should be less than 
one-fourth of an inch in thickness, because in testing immigrants it has 
been found that the thicker the individual pieces the more difficult is 
the task of performing this test. It is important that piece 1 (see 
fig. 43) should be distinctly broader than any other piece. In the 
present test piece 2 was a little broader than piece 3, and pieces 4 
and 5 were of the same dimensions, each being a trifle broader than 
piece 2. 

The illustrations (figs. 43-45) show the test as presented, as com- 
pleted, and a type of error. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The Healy Frame Test in its completed form was passed quickly 
in front of the immigrant's gaze, in order to show him that all of the 
pieces fitted into the frame; but the exposure was so short that the 
position of the different pieces could not be memorized. The small 
pieces were next emptied on the examining table, the empty frame 



94 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



was placed in front of the subject, the pieces were mixed, and the; 
interpreter told the subject to place all the pieces within the frame 
so as to cover completely the area within the frame. 

Time was taken with stop watch from the second the alien touched 
one of the small pieces. The false moves or the placing of pieces in 
faulty positions were recorded. A faulty position would be a position 




FIG. H3 



1 

% 
3 i 

4 5 



FIG. 44 











1 




& 




Y 










FIG-. 45 



l M/W1L0ER_ 



U.S. Public Health Service. 

Fiq. 43.— Healy Frame Test, as presented to immigrant for solution. 

Fig. 44.— Healy Frame Test as solved. 

Fig. 45.— A type of error in attempt to solve Healy Frame Test. 

assumed by any piece which would prevent the solution of the test 
or which could be considered relatively false. 1 As in the Geographic 
Puzzle, if the test was not performed in 300 seconds, it was recorded 
as a failure and the immigrant was shown how to execute the test. 
A second trial was given each immigrant, whether or not he had 
succeeded at the first trial. 



» See p. — for explanation of "relatively false." 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



95 



RESULTS. 

The results in certain groups are given below: 

Table 37. — Results of Healy Test in the case of literate 15 and above group. 





Men (51 


examined). 






Women (49 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


o 

© 

CO 

+^ 

CD .2 

££ 

CD >-, 

a^ 

CO g 
fl ° 
CD 

3 


CO 

CD 

II 

©^ 
CO** 

-2 co 

a (-i 

^^ 

£** 

O £3 

m2 
g£ 

a © 

CO <J> 

H to 
CD *= 

< 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


6 

CD 
CO 
4d 

c3— * 

•s 

as 

tJto 

© s- 
O 

a c3 

a a 
35 

CO g 

a © 

9 

3 


CO 

© 

23 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


© 

CO 

»d 
a 
o 

© t3 

CO CP 

u 

n 

it 

© 

1 


© 
> 
O 

a . 

<x> 

©t3 
J2e8 
SB 

^ CO 

* s 

1 


CO 

Sh 

CO 

a 

O 

©*o 

co © 

H 

«I 

a 


CD 

o 

a 

CD CD* 

©2 

r^ a 
a 

3 


CD 
U 

CO 

■9 
a 

o 

CD "O 
CO CD 

u 

CD 

1 
3 

£ 


© 

o 

a . 

CD 
©T3 
.52 eS 

as 

s_ CO 

ja 
a 

9 


CD 
U 

CO 

"9 

fl 
O 

cp *d 

CO CD 
H 

^a 

u 

a 

3 


> 
o 

a . 

CD 

sa 

v_ CO 

of 

sa 
a 


■3 co 

"—CO 

© 

£ *■» 

O C3 

a« 

aS 
s © 

CO © 

« M 

© +J 
— o3 
3 


1 


245 
93 
96 
27 

167 

16 

Failed. 

26 

27 

110 
17 
33 

211 

110 
41 
28 
26 
40 

113 
32 
35 
64 

105 
29 
30 
20 
10 
53 
70 
50 
Failed. 
Failed. 
40 
71 

128 
26 
17 

149 
78 
36 
16 
22 
12 
46 

108 
30 
35 
Failed. 
55 
38 
56 


14 

17 

13 
2 

16 

1 

130 



3 

11 
1 
2 

12 

11 
6 

2 
3 

10 
3 
4 
6 

11 
5 
1 
3 

4 
7 
6 
131 
135 
6 
7 

17 
2 
2 

13 

10 
5 

1 
1 
5 

10 
3 
2 
126 
4 
1 
4 


105 
18 
30 
15 
17 
12 
38 
12 
14 
20 

7 
22 
26 
36 
16 
11 
11 
14 
16 
12 
17 

8 
29 

8 
12 

6 

8 
17 
43 
27 
26 
13 
16 
67 
10 
51 
14 
15 
12 
22 
14 
38 
55 
16 
12 
24 
10 
105 
25 
22 
32 


5 




1 
3 
1 





3 
1 



1 

1 

1 






1 
1 

2 




1 


Failed. 

156 

110 

130 
70 

136 
Failed. 

153 
50 
70 
18 
47 

135 

Failed. 

9 

Failed. 

140 
Failed. 

150 

288 
25 
71 

136 
80 

207 
80 

104 

125 

Failed. 

37 

251 
11 
85 

210 

156 
9 
Failed. 
27 
62 
60 
82 

115 

176 
98 
82 

103 
39 

100 
61 


35 
14 

3 
14 

8 
15 
38 
15 
10 

6 

2 

7 
15 
28 


Ml 
12 
46 
20 
33 

2 

8 
15 

5 
19 

7 
16 
10 
26 

4 
19 



8 
19 
19 


2 27 

2 
10 

8 

8 
11 
12 
11 
14 

9 

5 
16 

6 


50 

150 
17 
15 
15 
14 
20 
37 
22 
11 
12 
43 
11 

266 

10 

9 

166 
16 
55 
13 
13 
25 
13 
17 
43 
15 
8 
19 
15 
62 
22 
19 
35 

102 
16 
9 
15 
14 
33 
12 
86 
19 
9 
8 
45 
23, 
13 
11 
17 


5 
15 

1 

1 
2 
4 
3 

1 
2 

20 


15 
3 
7 
1 


1 

3 


2 






2 




2 




3 




3 




4 




4 




5 




5 




6 




6 




7 




7 




8 


. 


X 


8 




9 


9 ::: 


i 


10 


i 


10 




11 


i 


11 




12 






12 




13 






13 




14 


.... 




14 




15 






15 


X I.... 


16 






16 




17 






17 


X i X 


18 


.... 




18 




19 


i 


19 






20 


i 


20 






21 


i 


21 






22 


i 


22 






23 






23 






24 






24 






25 






25 




26 






26 




27 






27 




28 


i 


28 




29 


i 


29 

30 

31 

32 

33 


1 


...*"" 


30 




2 
1 
2 


X . 


31 


t 




32 


1 


i 


V 1 V 


33 


1 
7 

2 
1 


4 

4 
4 
1 

3 

8 
1 
1 
4 


i i 


2 . 


34 






34 


5 


35 






35 






1 
2 

9 

1 


4 

I 








36 


X 


.... 


36 




37 


37 




38 




i 


38 




39 


1 1 


39 




40 


; 


40 




41 


i ! 


41 


X 


X 


42 


i 


42 


43 


X 
X 


x 

X 


43 






44 


44 






45 


45 


.... 




46 




46 






47 




47 






48 




48 






49 




49 






50 










51 








i 





i Succeeded after 320 seconds. 



2 Succeeded after 316 seconds. 



96 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Table 38. — Results of Healy Test in the case of Italian illiterate group. 



Men (20 examined). 


Women (20 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


i 

o 

05 
09 

■U . 

05 .5 
05 - 

£c3 

a* 

cx3 
3 c3 

r* — > 

05 g 

3° 

05 


CO 

05 

> __• 

M 
|« 

03 >- 
<~<3 

05 
C °3 

s« 

"jT-d 

o3 3 

05 T> 

3 M 
S3 c3 

4 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 

< 


Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


o 

05 
05 

03 — 
05.2 

Si 
53 IS 

05 (-, 

fc-cr" 

S-W 

a o3 

bod 

3 2 

Kfl 

05 9 

3 ° 

05 
12 


03 

05 

11 

IS 

03 l-i 

— <3 
2^ 

o ^ 

a a 

3 -*J 

S-d 

03 3 
3 o 
- o 

c/5 05 

3 OT 

05 •*-» 
"^ 03 

< 


Alien's 

number 
in group. 


6 
u 

w 

"d 

3 

o 

05 "3 
05 05 

H 

"~ °3 

05 

a 

3 


05 

> 
O 

a . 

c 

05^3 

a a 

<— to 

c 3 

1 

3 


u 

05 
O 

cd 

05 05 

H 

°f 

05 

a 

60 
54 
26 
11 
32 
17 


05 

> 

o 

a 

05 05* 

05 x) 

S| 

i B 

3 

20 
2 


2 
2 
1 

33 
1 



5 



1 


1 


CD 
M 

05 

•3 
3 
o 

05 t3 

05 05 

E 

1 

3 


05 

> 

o 

a . 

05 
05 -d 
,2 03 

-as 

*_, 05 

°3 

®a 
I 

3 


05 
05 

-d 

3 

o 

05^3 
05 05 

=1 

05 

a 

3 


05 

> 

o 

a . 

05 
05 -d 
2 03 

sa 

«« 05 

°3 

sa 
a 

3 


1 


Failed. 

245 

35 

13 

Failed. 

235 

27 

41 

209 

24 

74 

121 

40 

27 

85 

Failed. 
58 
30 
14 
23 


26 
18 
1 
1 
26 
30 


1 


108 

Failed. 

93 

110 

78 

Failed. 

45 

Failed. 

156 
42 
71 

130 
Failed. 
50 
41 
25 
55 

243 

195 

113 


10 

14 

7 

6 

8 

24 



23 

15 

8 

8 

18 

35 

6 

5 

3 

7 

16 

10 

8 


9 
59 
25 
17 
28 
95 
20 
20 
50 
19 
19 
13 
Failed. 
21 
9 
19 
64 
23 
26 
12 



2 



4 




2 




2 






3 




3 




4 




4 


1 


5 




5 




6 




6 


1 


7 


1 16 






7 







8 


4 

13 

3 

11 

7 

3 

4 

8 

i 12 

8 

2 

1 

1 


Failed. 
12 
10 
12 
17 
55 

9 
19 
12 

9 
12 
17 
21 


8 


2 
6 

1 




1 




9 


9 






10 


10 






11 






11 






12 






12 






13 


X 


X 


13 






14 


14.. 


2 


2 
5 


1 






15 






15 


1 




16 


i 


16 






17 


i 


17 






18 


i 


18 






19 


x .... 


19 


- 




20 


20 


1 












1 





1 Succeeded after 316 seconds. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 
Table 39. — Results of Healy Test in the case of Slav illiterate group. 



97 



Men (10 examined). 


Women (30 examined). 




Trial No. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


o 

CD 
CO 

m.p 

£-8 

CD tj 

*- (d 

a cs 

ted 
d S 
£5 

CD 


C/J 

CD 

> ^J 
2 * 

©^ 

isto- 

*-«d 

CD 

""£ 
O " 

ad 

d+j 
S-d 
cs d 

ag 

CO CD 

d OT 

Jd ™ 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


Trial N< 


>. 1. 


Trial No. 2. 


o 

CD 
CO 

*a 

C3— . 

as 

CO 

© >-, 

a a 

tad 
d g 

© 

< 


CO 

© 

£*» 

o ^ 

ad 

y 

d+j 

'-Si 

58 
m s 

G OT 

US C3 
3 


Alien's 
number 
in group. 


© 
co 

a 
o 

© *o 

CO © 

_.d 
°& 

CD 

1 

3 


> 
o 

a . 
a 

3 


CD 

u 

T3 

d 
o 

CD T3 
CO CD 
^5 

«l 
ki 

CD 

,Q 

a 

3 


CD 
> 
O 

a 

CD CD* 

CO'O 

oi2 

M 


CD 

co 
-9 

d 

o 

©t3 

CO CD 

°f 

u 

CD 

1 

d 


© 
> 
O 

a . 

CD 

©73 

SB 

<4_l CO 

°d 

,§ a 
a 

d 


© 

N 

CO 
<& 

a 

o 

CD"d 
CO CD 

n 

(-. 

CD 


i 

> 
o 

3 . 

CD 

©T3 

u_ CO 

°d 

g a 


1 


40 
160 

30 

36 

195 

184 

Failed. 

Failed. 

107 

18 


5 
15 

2 

3 
16 
18 
37 
124 
14 

2 


16 
19 
15 
15 
21 
14 
26 
14 
40 
97 




1 
1 




2 
1 
6 
8 






1 


24 

209 

Failed. 

83 

232 

30 

109 

221 

143 

Failed. 

259 

Failed. 

Failed. 

Failed. 

98 

210 

53 

Failed. 

70 

41 

19 

104 

67 

59 

14 

55 

26 

9 

109 

25 


1 

12 

2 32 
11 
20 

3 

12 
27 
18 
25 
32 
22 
27 

3 27 
11 
25 

8 
25 
7 
2 
1 
9 
8 
2 
1 
7 
3 

9 
3 


10 
89 
59 
13 
76 
25 
20 
12 
15 
21 
11 
45 
30 
17 
50 

124 
60 
12 
24 
18 
14 

150 
12 
12 
37 
13 
14 
9 
15 
9 



8 






2 


l 


2 




3 


1 


3 


5 




... 


4 


1 


4 


5 


1 


5 


5 

1 




2 
2 

4 

11 
13 

2 


12 


3 

1 

1 





6 


.... 


1 


6 




7 


.... 




7 

8 




8 








9 


... 




9 




10 


X 


X 


10 






11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 


























■ 
















X X 












26 

27 

28 














29 

30 








1 



1 Succeeded after 305 seconds. 
1970°— 17 7 



2 Succeeded after 300+ seconds. 



3 Succeeded after 330 seconds 



98 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

SUMMARY OF RESULTS. 

One hundred and forty-five out of 174 literate immigrants (83 + per 
cent) succeeded in solving this test within 300 seconds at the first 
trial. Seventy-five per cent of every group succeeded in doing this 
test at trial 1 with the exception of the girls of the literate 12-14 
group, only 58— per cent of their number succeeding. The time 
ranged in these successful cases from 9 seconds to 288 seconds. 
The average time for the performance at the first trial was 94 sec- 
onds. The shortest average time (75 seconds) was made by the 10 
children of the literate 9-11 group, the longest average time (112 
seconds) by the 11 girls of the literate 12-14 group. The men and 
boys of the literate 15 and above and literate 12-14 groups made better 
average time than the women and girls of the same groups. 

The average number of false moves at the first trial for all the 
literate groups combined were 10. The smallest average number of 
false moves at this trial (6) was made by the men of the literate 15 
and above group. The largest average number of false moves 13 
were made by the 14 boys of the literate 12-14 group. There is 
little difference in the number of false moves as regards sex. It is 
interesting to note that the 10 children of the literate 9-11 group 
averaged only 8 false moves. 

At the second trial 144 out of 145 literate immigrants succeeded. 
One girl of the literate 12-14 group failed. The time ranged in the 
successful cases from 7 seconds to 200 seconds. The average per- 
formance time at the second trial in 144 cases was 23 seconds. The 
shortest average time (15 seconds) was made by the 10 children of 
the literate 9-11 group, the longest average time (31 seconds) was 
made by the women of the literate 15 and above group. At trial 2 
the men of the literate 15 and above group made better average time 
than the women, and the girls of the literate 12-14 group made 
better average time than the boys of the same group. 

The average number of false moves at the second trial for the liter- 
ate groups was 1 J, the largest number (3) being made by the boys of 
the literate 12-14 group, the smallest average number of false moves 
(§) being made by the 10 children of the literate 9-11 group. 

Ninety-seven out of 119 illiterate immigrants (81^ per cent) suc- 
ceeded in solving the Healy Frame Test within 300 seconds at the 
first trial. Seventy-five per cent of every group succeeded in doing 
this test at trial 1 with the exception of the 8 women of the illiterate 
15 and above group; only 5 of them, or 62 J per cent, succeeded. The 
time ranged in these successful cases from 9 seconds to 275 seconds. 
The average performance time for the first trial in all of these illit- 
erate groups was 86 seconds. The shortest average time (54 seconds) 
was made by the 5 successful members of the group which made the 



TESTS IN REASONING. 99 

poorest record; namely, the women of the illiterate 15 and above 
group. The longest average time (99 seconds) was made by the 
illiterate 10-11 group. The men and women of the Slav illiterate 
gronp made about the same average time, 96 seconds and 95 seconds 
respectively; while the men of the Italian illiterate group excelled 
the women, their respective times being 77 seconds and 97 seconds. 

The average number of false moves for all the illiterate groups at 
the first trial was %\. The smallest average number of false moves 
7) was made by the following groups: Men of the Italian illiterate , 
illiterate 15 and above, women of the illiterate 15 and above and chil- 
dren of the illiterate 12-14 groups; the largest average number of 
false moves (11) was made by the illiterate 10-11 group. As regards 
sex there is practically no difference in regard to the average number 
of false moves. It is interesting to note that a number of the illit- 
erate groups made a smaller average number of false moves than the 
literate groups. 

At the second trial 95 out of 97 illiterate immigrants succeeded. 
Two failures occurred, one in the illiterate 12-14 group and the other 
was a man of the Italian illiterate group. The time ranged in these 
successful cases from 9 seconds to 239 seconds. The average per- 
formance time at the second trial in these 95 cases was 31 seconds, 
the shortest average time (16 seconds) was made by the 5 women 
of the illiterate 15 and above group, the longest average time (53 sec- 
onds) by the illiterate 10-11 group. The men of the Slav illiterate 
and Italian illiterate groups made slightly better average time than 
the women. 

The average number of false moves at the second trial for all the 
illiterate groups combined was less than 2, the largest average num- 
ber of false moves (3) was made by the illiterate 10-11 group, men of 
the illiterate 15 and above group, and women of the Slav illiterate 
groups, the smallest average number of false moves (f) was made 
by the 5 women of the illiterate 15 and above group. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

From the above, it may be concluded that: 

(1) As 75 per cent of both literate and illiterate immigrants who 
were tested are able to solve the Healy Frame Test within 300 sec- 
onds, it is not too difficult a test at the time of landing for immigrants 
above the age of 9. 

(2) At the first trial the illiterates performed the test a little more 
quickly and with a smaller number of false moves than did the 
literates. At the second trial the reverse was true. 

(3) For practical purposes there is little difference between the 
literates and illiterates in the execution of this test. 



100 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

(4) As in the case of the Geographic Puzzle, there is no marked dif- 
ference in the performance of this test for different ages above the 
age of 9. 

(5) For convenience, it may be remembered that, for both literates 
and illiterates at the first trial, the Healy Frame Test is performed 
in an average time of 90 seconds and with 9 false moves. At the 
second trial the performance time is only one-third to one-tenth of 
what it was at the first trial. 

DISCUSSION. 

It is important to mention that in the experimental examination 
which lasted about one and one-half hours for each immigrant, the 
Healy Frame Test was executed toward the close of the examina- 
tion after the immigrant had been undergoing various tests for a 
period of from 70 to 75 minutes. At this period some subjects were 
more fatigued, some more discouraged, and others more enthusiastic 
than at the beginning of the examination. 

At the beginning of the investigation it was presumed that the 
Healy Test would be a new problem for nearly all alike, that the small 
amount of formal schooling, one or two years, in the case of literates, 
would not bestow any material advantage on them in the execution 
of this test. It would now appear that this idea was correct. The 
percentage of successes in the two classes of immigrants was almost 
identical (83+ per cent literates; 81 J per cent illiterates). 

The natural order of performance was in the majority of cases to 
first place piece 1 in its proper transverse position. This procedure 
fills a comparatively large space and simplifies the problem to an 
opening into which 4 pieces must be placed. Pieces 2 and 3 are 
next placed, sometimes piece 2 being placed first, but more often 
piece 3. Pieces 4 and 5 are usually the last pieces placed. These 5 
small pieces can be arranged in 16 combinations, any one of which is 
correct. 

In doing the Healy Test a piece may be rightly placed but its posi- 
tion may be relatively false and it is therefore counted as a false 
move. Thus, in Fig. 45 piece 4 is occupying a faulty position. 
Piece 5 is then placed in the lower left corner. Its position, while 
actually true, is relatively false as long as piece 4 remains where it is. 
In assuming this position a false move is credited to piece 5. When 
pieces 4 and 5 are so placed as to assume the position represented in 
Fig. — the subject may get a false sense of security and hold tena- 
ciously to this false position. 

The Healy Frame Test, like many other performance tests, shows 
the immigrant's ability in two directions, reasoning and learning. If 
he has never done the test before and does it quickly and with few 
false moves, or if he carefully observes the frame and the individual 



TESTS IN REASONING. 101 

pieces and with a few false moves slowly accomplishes the task, 
reasoning ability in some degree is suggested. However, he may 
fail to perform the test within the required 300 seconds and yet be a 
good reasoner. Some accidental circumstance, such as emotional 
disturbance and fatigue, prevent the successful execution of the test. 

Should the immigrant become acquainted with this test before 
landing it would be of little value as a test in reasoning, for success 
would be simply a memory feat. A test in reasoning must be com- 
posed of new and unfamiliar elements as well as of old and familiar 
ones. After the immigrant has been shown how to solve the Healy 
Test, or after he has, over a considerable time, worked it out for 
himself, the manner of the performance and speed of performance at 
the second trial will throw some light on his learning ability. 

At times, the second trial shows the accidental nature of the 
success at the first trial. 1 For instance, in the second trial, when 
piece 1 is placed longitudinally instead of transversely at the start. 
When this happens it usually means that the subject is facing the 
problem for the first time. His success at trial 1 was accomplished 
accidentally while his attention was directed to other affairs, internal 
or external. Such a movement at the second trial may also mean a 
defective reaction. Exceptionally, this test has been performed 
twice in succession by accident. 

As in all other tests, any previous experience related in any way to 
this test will be of assistance to the subject in performing it. In this 
connection, during the investigation it seemed that carpenters and 
bricklayers, perhaps on account of their keenness of form perception, 
executed the test with comparative ease. One immigrant did poorly 
with the Opposites and other tests. When asked as to how he suc- 
ceeded in doing the Healy so well, he replied through the interpreter, 
"I am a brickmaker and the arrangement of these pieces comes easy 
to me." 

The test is considered well performed if done quickly at the second 
trial, even though a long time was required and many false moves 
made at the first trial. There should be no unusual delay in the 
doing of this test at the second trial. In general, when the Healy 
Frame Test has been mentally analyzed and performed, there should 
be no subsequent trouble in executing it. Occasionally, at the first 
trial the normal immigrant will give a smile of gratification as he 
analyzes, sees the point, and completes the test. In such cases the 
second trial is usually accomplished in from 10 to 15 seconds. 

If the intelligent subject keeps in mind the abstract principle 
"Every space must be filled," he will succeed even though he have 

* A psychologist visiting Ellis Island made an objection to this test, saying that if piece 1 accidentally 
fellinto its right position at the start , the test would be so much easier to perform. This is probably a valid 
objection, but the same objection could be made to other tests. 



102 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

comparatively poor vision. The execution of the test does not 
require the thorough searching of details required in the case of the 
Geographic and Relationship Tests. In fact, whenever an intelligent 
subject has a restricted visual field he will be able more easily to 
perform this test than either the Geographic or Relationship Tests. 1 

RELATIONSHIP. 

The Relationship Test was suggested by Prof. R. S. Woodworth, 
of Columbia University. The testing material consists of 2 parts — 
the board and the field. 

(1) The board is 18§ inches long and 5| inches wide. It contains 
10 raised designs or pieces securely attached. Four of these designs, 
situated on the upper row, are similar in shape and color to 4 designs 
of the lower row. The only difference in the designs of the 2 rows 
is a difference in size. 

Two other designs (a large black square situated on the upper row 
and a small red triangle on the lower row) are opposite vacant spaces. 
(Fig. 46.) 

(2) The field, situated to the right of the board, contains 13 
detached designs of odd color and shape. Among these pieces are 
2 squares, 1 large and 1 small; and 2 red triangles, 1 large and 1 small. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The board and field were placed on the examining table in front 
of the immigrant. Pointing to the large and small pieces of the board 
the interpreter said : 

These designs of the upper row are very much like the designs of the lower row. 
They are of the same color and shape. This circle is like that circle [pointing to them]. 

1 The following is quoted from p. 15 of one of the psychological monographs "Tests for Practical Mental 
Classification" by William Healy, M. D., and Grace Maxwell Fernald, Ph. D.: 

" This test brings out perception of relationships of form and also the individual's method of mental pro- 
cedure for the given task— particularly his ability to profit by experience of repeated trials, in contradis- 
tinction to the peculiar repetition of impossibilities characteristic of the subnormal and feeble-minded 
groups. * * * It would seem apparent that for estimating mental ability the method pursued in this 
task is of much greater value than the actual time. Probably all would acknowledge that a trial method, 
where the subject proceeds intelligently from one apparent possibility to another, even though a relatively 
long time is consumed, will not necessarily indicate lack of native ability. * * *" 

The following is quoted from p. 107 of "The Individual Delinquent" by William Healy, A. B.' M. D. 
The quotation shows what Dr. Healy has to say about his own test. His observations, of course, have 
been made in an environment different from that of arriving aliens. 

" Test III. Construction Test A. — This is one of our more important tests. * * * No normal person 
over 8 or 9 years should fail to do it in 5 minutes. At 12 years we find great variation in time, showing 
very distinct differences in ability. Some grasp and plan the task very readily, performing it in 12 seconds 
to 15 seconds; nearly all of those normal mentally getting it done in 2 minutes. To be considered as done 
well, it should be done within these limits, and without replacing pieces in obviously impossible positions. 
Of course a planned method is better than trial and error, but some get through rapidly by quickly per- 
ceiving the possibilities of the latter. The number of moves used depends, of course, on the method. 
Estimation of the method is certainly more important than the time, within the above limits. The least 
possible number of moves is five. The private-school group all succeeded from the second grade up with 
a gradual diminition of the average time, which in the second grade was 2 minutes 7 seconds; 33 per cent 
failed in the first grade, even with 10 minutes trial, and 23 per cent in the second grade. Beginning with 
fourth grade 50 per cent did it by planning. None in this school did any better than many of the best in 
the group of offenders." 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



103 




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te 



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on 

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a: 
< 

< 

-j 

Of 

O 



III 




u 


>■> 




D 


> 


c 


or 


O 


UJ 


a 


W 


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X 


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Xj 


!_i 


B 


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LU 


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104 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



This triangle is like that triangle, this cross is like that cross, this diamond is like that 
diamond; but all the pieces of the upper row are large, all the pieces of the lower 
row are small. There are two vacant spaces on the board [pointing to them]. Find 
from the field [pointing to it] the two missing pieces and place them in their positions 
on the board. 

There are three possible moves to be made at each vacant space: 

(1) The placing of an obviously wrong piece, which was scored 0. 

(2) The placing of a piece exactly like the piece in the opposite 
row (same color, shape, and size). As a movement of this kind 
shows some thinking, a score of J point was given. 

(3) The placing of the proper piece. This piece will be the same 
in color and shape, but different in size to the piece of the opposite 
row. The placing of the correct piece scored 1 point. The perfect 
score for both vacant spaces was therefore 2. 

After the instruction had been given the immigrant was allowed 
a minute in which to fill the vacant spaces and make any correction 
he wished in his movements. 

RESULTS. 

The results of this test were as follows: 

Table 40. — Results of Relationship Tests. 



Group. 


Number 
examined. 


Number of aliens scoring one 
or more points. 1 


Percent- 
age. 


Number of aliens 
scoring less than 
one point. 


Percent- 
age. 




2 points. 


1J points. 


1 point. 


|- point. 


points. 




Literates: 
9-11. . 


12 
25 

18 
19 

51 
49 

4 
8 

19 

8 

19 
20 

10 
30 


6 
9 

6 
10 

19 
26 


4 
9 

4 
6 

11 

8 


2 
6 

6 
2 

16 
9 

4 
4 

7 
1 

4 
6 

5 

12 


100 
96 

89 - 

94i+ 

90 + 

87 \ + 

100 

75 

89% 
75 

68|+ 
55 

90 
93£ 








Hebrew 9-11. 




1 
1 


4 


12-14— 

Bovs 

Gir,ls . . . 


1 
1 


11 + 
5J— 


15-above — 
Men . 


5 
6 


10 - 


Women 




12£— 


Illiterates: 
10-11 






12-14 


1 

4 
2 

4 
3 

2 

8 


1 

6 
3 

5 

2 

2 

8 


1 


1 

2 

1 

5 
7 

1 
1 


25 


15-above— 


11| 


Women 

Italian — 

Men 


1 

1 

2 


25 
31|— 


Women 

Slav- 
Men 


45 
90 


Women 


1 


62§ 



1 One point was given for correctly placing each of the two pieces in the vacant spaces. One-half point 
was scored for placing a piece exactly like the one in the opposite row (of the same size). 

Seventy-five per cent of all literate groups succeeded in scoring at 
least 1 point. Seventy-five per cent of all the illiterate groups suc- 
ceeded in scoring 1 point with the exception of the Italian illiterate 
group. Only 68 \ per cent of the men and 55 per cent of the women of 
this group succeeded in scoring 1 point. The comparatively poor 



TESTS IN REASONING. 105 

showing of this group is perhaps the most interesting feature in the 

result. 

It will be noticed that the young subjects of both literate and illiter- 
ate groups did as well if not better than many older subjects. 

DISCUSSION. 

This is essentially an elementary test in problem solving or reason- 
ing involving the relationship of color, size, and form perceptions. 
The sagacious subject in doing the test surveys the board, observing 
its component parts and their relationships. Likewise, he will survey 
the field and by a process of his selective judgment will complete the 
test. 1 

Good vision is necessary for the performance of this test. 

MODIFICATION. 

The Modification Test is a modified form of the Geometrical Figure 
Test used by A. R. Abelson and was suggested for trial among arriving 
immigrants by Prof. Henry Alfred Ruger, Department of Psychology, 
Teachers College, New York City. 

The Geometrical Figure Test consists of a series of designs con- 
taining circles, squares, and triangles interlocking one another in 
various ways. Some of the figure arrangements are simple, others 
complicated. The test consists in getting the subject to point to a 
spot on a certain design that would be included within so many circles, 
so many triangles, and so many squares. 

The immigrants, both literates and illiterates, experimented upon 
in this examination are unfamiliar with these geometrical forms and 
before such a test could be attempted with them a thorough explana- 
tion of these figures would have to be made. As such a procedure 
would cause delay, it was thought that a simplified form of the same 
test could be used, only substituting familiar animals for the geomet- 
rical figures. Hence the modified test as presented to the immigrants 
in this experiment consisted of 4 designs containing the outline 
drawings of 2 chickens, 2 pigs, and a man arranged in different inter- 
locking combinations. The combinations used were as follows : 

1. Pig and chicken. (Fig. 47.) 

2. Pig, chicken, and man. (Fig. 48.) 

3. Two pigs, chicken, and man. (Fig. 49.) 

4. Two pigs, 2 chickens, and man. (Fig. 50.) 

1 Su'rgeon T. Clark of the Public Health Service after seeing this test performed a number of times sug- 
gested that instead of having the board composed of attached pieces, that every piece be a detached piece 
and that it be fastened to its position on the board by a screw or a glove-button device. 

This would enable the examiner to set up a number of new problems. In this event, coaching a stupid 
immigrant on any particular problem before the examination would have little influence on the result. 



106 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 




Fig. 47.— Pig and chicken. Modification Test. (Reproduction is one-fourth the size of the original.) 




Fig. 48.— Pig, chicken, and man. Modification Test. (Reproduction is one-fourth the size of the 

original.) 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



107 




Fig. 49.— Two pigs, chicken, and man. Modification Test. (Reproduction is one-fourth the size of 

the original.) 




Fig. 50.— Two pigs, two chickens, and man. Modification Test. (Reproduction is one-fourth the size of 

the original.) 



108 



MENTALITY OP THE THRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



METHOD OF TESTING. 

The design containing the pig and chicken (fig. 47) was placed on 
the examining table in front of the subject. The interpreter first 
asked the immigrant if he recognized the drawings. Practically 
all answered in the affirmative. A pointer was then placed in the 
immigrant's hand and the interpreter said to him: 

Touch with pointer only the chicken. [Pause for execution.] 

Touch only the pig. [Pause for execution.] 

Now touch both chicken and pig at the same place. 

At the termination of this explanation, if the subject did not com- 
prehend what was wanted of him, a second and similar explanation 
was gone through with. 

The design containing the pig, chicken, and man (fig. 48) was 
then placed in front of the subject, and the interpreter said to him: 

Touch only the pig. [Pause for execution.] 

Touch only the chicken. [Pause.] 

Touch only the man. [Pause.] 

Now touch all 3 — pig, chicken, and man — at the same place. 

This test was almost invariably accomplished. Then the designs 
containing 4 and 5 animals were placed in front of him, and a similar 
instruction was gone through with in solving each design. 

RESULTS. 

The results of the tests are given below: 

Table 41. — Results of Modification Test. 



Group. 



Literates : 

9-11 

Hebrew, 9-11 

12-14— 

Boys 

Girls .... 

15-above— 

Men 

Women. 
Illiterates : 

10-11 

12-14 

15-above— 

Men 

Women . 

Italian- 
Men 

Women . 

Slav- 
Men 

Women . 



Number 
exam- 
ined. 



12 
25 

18 
19 

51 

49 



21 



20 
20 

10 
30 



Aliens successful with de- 
signs containing at least 4 
figures. 1 



Designs 
with 5 
figures. 



2 
3 

5 
5 

17 
15 

1 
2 

4 

1 



Designs 
with 4 
figures. 



7 
18 

10 

14 

31 

28 

2 
6 

15 
5 

14 
15 

6 
22 



Percent- 
age. 



75 
84 

835 
100 

94 + 
87J+ 

75 
100 

90* 

75" 

90 

85 

90 

86| 



Aliens successful 
with designs con- 
taining less than 
4 figures. 



Designs 
with 3 
figures. 



Designs 
with 2 
figures. 



1 It is to be understood that aliens succeeding with a certain design have also been successful with each 
of the simpler designs. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 109 

Seventy-five per cent of every group were successful with designs 
containing at least 4 animals. The men, both literate and illiterate, 
made a better showing than the women. The girls of the literate 12-1 4- 
group were the only exception, as they excelled the boys of the same 
group. The Italian and Slav groups seem to be on a par in the 
performance of this test. No difference exists in the solution of 
this test as regards age, the 10 and 11 year old children seeming to 
do as well as the adults. For practical purposes it may be concluded 
that: 

Normal immigrants above the age of 9, regardless of age, nation- 
ality, and literacy, can succeed with designs containing 4 animals. 

DISCUSSION. 

The classification of certain tests depends in a degree upon the 
kind of subjects that are tested. A simple test that almost reflexly 
brings out perception and discrimination in a highly educated and 
experienced person may be classified as a real test in reasoning when 
it is used on an inexperienced and illiterate person. The Modification 
Test is an entirely new and complex presentation to the majority 
of immigrants, and it is therefore best to classify it among the prob- 
lems or reasoning tests. Few immigrants of the peasant type have 
had experiences which would assist them in the performance of this 
test. Furthermore, the results show that the record of performance 
is about as good in the case of the illiterates as in that of the literates. 

In view of these facts it might be well to claim that this test is 
one of the best tests of the entire investigation for bringing forth 
native ability. 

The Modification Test brings about that form of purposive think- 
ing wherein a selection which fulfills certain conditions must be made. 
To fulfill the conditions in this test, the subject must have a per- 
ception of the individual animal. The outlines of each animal must 
be isolated and visually traced until it is plainly seen that such 
outline surrounds the proposed point of contact. When all the ani- 
mals of a design have been thus considered, the hypothetical point of 
contact becomes the real point and the problem is solved. 

The calm and thinking subject, in solving the design containing 
five animals, will look slowly to the right and left, occasionally turning 
tha design from side to side. After mentally tracing and search- 
ing over a period of from 5 to 30 seconds, he will place the pointer 
on the right area. In other words, a considerable delay, moving of 
the eyes from side to side, as attention to separate details takes place, 
and a correct plunge with the pointer, would indicate that the sub- 
ject is employing the ^thinking method.' ' 

If the subject plunged the pointer quickly, especially in the case 
of the last design, and struck the right area, another trial was im- 



110 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

mediately given him in order to see if his success at first were acci- 
dental. 

The method of administering this test — that is, getting the sub- 
ject to point out each animal before pointing to the central contact 
area — is really a number of subsidiary tests, each involving an ana- 
lytic process. 

Other tests similar to the Modification Test may be employed in 
the mental examination of immigrants. Designs containing other 
animals or other objects could be arranged similarly to the animals 
here presented, the idea being to have a series of new problems to 
present to the immigrant at successive examinations, in order that 
light may be thrown on his reasoning and learning ability. 1 

DEFINITIONS. 

The definitions of two common nouns, a verb, and an abstract 
noun were required of each immigrant. The words selected were: 
Tree, bed, run, and truth. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The interpreter said to the subject, "What is a tree?" The 
literal translation of the immigrant's response was quickly written 
down on his chart. Then the other definitions were taken up in 
the same way. 

The replies given by immigrants were so unsatisfactory that it 
was hypothecated early in the experiment that ability to define 
was dependent to a large extent upon definite training. In order 
to test the truth or falsity of this hypothesis a number of immigrants 
were given the definition of a chair, 2 after which they were asked to 
define a table in order to see if there occurred any improvement in 
defining ability. 

RESULTS. 

The definitions here presented are selected from members of the 
literate 9-11, Hebrew literate 9-11, and Slav illiterate groups. The 
definitions of a table as well as of the four original words are given. 

LITERATE 9-11 GROUP. 

Italian (male, age 9, 3 years of schooling). 
Tree: A plant. 

Bed: It is an article; it serves for people to lie upon. 
Run : A child that is going through the streets runs. 
Truth: (No reply.) 

Table: To eat on, to write on, to iron clothes on. 

1 Clark, of the Public Health Service, suggests that the contact point on the different designs be variously- 
placed. This suggestion, while making the execution a little more difficult, rules out the accident phase, 
and if carried out, will undoubtedly enhance the value of the test. 

2 The following definition was used, the interpreter making a distinct pause between the different parts 
of the definition: 

"A chair is a piece of furniture — It is made of wood, iron, or other materials— It may or may not have 
legs — It is used by people to sit on — For the purpose of working or resting." 



TESTS IN REASONING. Ill 

Italian (male, age 10, 2 years of schooling). 

Tree: A wood, there are leaves, there is fruit on it. 

Bed: On which we go to rest. 

Run: One is to run. 

Truth: To tell the truth is right, but not tell a lie. 

Table: To eat on, to write on, to stand things on, to put the lamp on, and sometimes 
to lay the baby on. 

Italian (male, age 10, 1 year of schooling) . 

Tree: It makes fruit. 

Bed: That in which we sleep. 

Run: To do a thing and to do that in quick time. 

Truth: Not to tell wrong things. 

Table: Has 4 legs, is made of wood, which we eat on. 

Italian (male, age 11, 3 years of schooling) . 
Tree: Make fruit. 

Bed: Where you lay down at night. 
Run: A child runs. 
Truth: To tell the truth, not to tell lies. 

Table: Is made to write on, to receive visitors, to beautify, for studying, for writing 
letters, to put the table cloth on, to put the eatables on, then to eat, then you take 
the things off, and you wash the dishes. 

Russian Pole (male, age 11, 1\ years of schooling). 
Tree: Woods. 
Bed: Bedding. 
Run: To trot. 
Truth: To say something right. 

Table: Is a furniture, it is to put things on. 

Russian (male, age 9, 9 months of schooling). 

Tree: It's a plant. 

Bed: Where one has to sleep on it. 

Run: To run with one's legs. 

Truth: If one said the truth, just what he had done. 

Table: Is a furniture, used to work on. 

HEBREW LITERATE 9-11 GROUP. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 9, 5% years at Cheydar). 
Tree: Wood. 

Bed: People sleep in it. 

Run: To walk fast. 

Truth: If you tell something and you don't want to believe it unless it is true. 

Table: A furniture, one does something on the table, it is made of iron or wood, may 
be with legs or without legs. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 9, 4 years at Cheydar). 

Tree: That grows apples and other fruits. 

Bed : To sleep on. 

Run: To work. 

Truth: To tell a true thing. 

Table: On a table you eat, write, study, work on it, I do not know how it is made. 



112 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 9, 2 years at Cheydar). 
Tree: Grows. 

Bed: Sleep in. 

Run : If you get in a place where they are righting you run away. 

Truth: Not to tell a lie. 

Table : Is to eat on, put things on, i t is furniture. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 10, 5 years at Cheydar). 
Tree: Wood. 

Bed: Either wood, iron, or nickel. 
Run: Move legs fast. 
Truth: Not a lie. 

Table: Is an object, on table they put down things, and eat and write, there are 
tables of one leg, it is of wood. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 10, 3 years at Cheydar). 

Tree: Get fruit from it, and wood from it. 

Bed: We sleep on it. 

Run: To chase. 

Truth: To tell the truth. 

Table : Made of wood, it is to eat on , drink on or work on. 

Austrian Hebrew (male, age 10, 2\ years of schooling). 

Tree: It is apples. 
Bed: To sleep on. 
Run: Walk fast. 
Truth: Correct. 

Table: It is to write on, to eat on, to put things on, it is made of wood, iron, or other 
things, it is made with or without legs. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 10,2 years at Cheydar). 

Tree: It has roots and grows to fruit. 

Bed: We sleep in it. 

Run: To walk fast. 

Truth: To tell a right thing, not to tell a lie. 

Table: Is a furniture. On the table we eat, write. 

Austrian Hebrew (female, age 10, 3 years of schooling). 

Tree: It grows. 
Bed: To sleep in. 
Run: Walk fast. 
Truth: Not to tell a lie. 

Table: Is used for doing things that one had to do at a table, it is wood, has legs. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 10, % year of schooling in addition to 2 years at Cheydar). 

Tree: It grows. 

Bed: To sleep in. 

Run: Togo faster. 

Truth: One does not tell a lie, that's the truth. 

Table : It is a furniture, one works on it, writes on it. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 113 

Russian Hebrew (female, age 10, 2 years at Cheydar). 

» 

Tree: It grows fruit. 
Bed: To sleep in. 
Run: Run with one's legs. 
Truth: Not to tell a lie. 

Table: Is a furniture, to iron on, to eat on, to put things on. 

Russian Hebrew (female, age 10, % year at Cheydar). 

Tree: It is wood. 

Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: If one needs something quick. 

Truth: If you say something, you have to say the truth; a true word is the truth. 

Table: Is a furniture, if one wants to eat, write or work he does it on the table, they 

put things on it. Make tables with or without legs, it is made out of wood, iron or 

other things. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 11, 6 years at Cheydar). 

Tree: Which is growing. 
Bed: People sleep on. 
Run: Run fast, walk fast. 
Truth: True. 

Table: Has four legs, Can not be without legs, don't make tables out of iron, table 
is to eat on, to write on, to put things on. 

Russian Hebrew (male, age 11,6 years at Cheydar). 

Tree : On a tree all kinds of fruit are growing. 
Bed: Is to sleep on. 

Run: When needs something in a hurry; he walks fast, runs. 

Truth: If I tell you something you think it a lie, you ask some one else, and if they 
say no, you know I didn't say the truth. 

Table : To write on, to iron things on, to work, to eat on, to put bread on. 
Russian Hebrew (female, age 11, 1 year at Cheydar). 

Tree: It grows fruit or something else. 

Bed: To sleep in. 

Run: One walks fast. 

Truth: When one says the truth not a lie. 

Table: A furniture, of wood, iron, or other things; on the table they write or do 
other things, put things on, has legs or no legs. 

SLAV ILLITERATE GROUP. 

Russian (male, age 16, S\ months 1 schooling). 

Tree: Something growing. 
Bed: Object on which we sleep. 
Run: Walking, then break out in a run. 
Truth: Is true to tell the truth. 

Table: Is to eat on, to write on. 
1970°— 17 8 



114 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Russian (male, age 18, 3 montW schooling). 
Tree: Is a plant. 

Bed : Cot to sleep on. 

Run: To catch something as to run after. 

Truth: If I see something and am asked about it, and say just what I have seen. 

Table: Is a furniture; people are eating or writing on it. It may have one or four 
legs; it is also made of iron. 

Russian (male, age 18, 5 months' schooling). 

Tree: Pear tree, oak, birch, maple, linden. 
Bed : What you sleep in. 
Run: To get quicker to a place. 
Truth: Whoever tells the truth. 

Table : Has legs; we eat at the table coming home from work; they write on it, put 
things on it, and clean the table. 

Russian Pole (male, age 20, no schooling). 

Tree: To saw down and put houses from. 
Bed: To lie down. 
Run: To walk. 
Truth: Not to he. 

Table: To eat on; to sit around; to read and write on. 

Russian Ruthenian (male, age 22, no schooling). 

Tree: Apple tree or an oak or cherry tree. 

Bed: Quilt. 

Run: A hare is running. 

Truth: To tell the truth. 

Table: To eat on; to write on; to do things on. 

Austrian Ruthenian (male, age 24, no schooling). 

Tree : What kind of tree? 

Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: To run away. 

Truth: If one tell truth it is truth. 

Table: Is to eat on. 

Russian Pole (male, age 28, 5 months' schooling). 

Tree: Is a plant. 

Bed: A thing necessary for the people. 
Run: To move away from the original place. 
Truth: Correctness of the thing done. 

Table: Is of wood; may be with or without legs; it is used for eating or to write on. 
Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 16,4 months' schooling.) 

Tree: Apple tree, pear tree, plum tree, or willow. 

Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: That is the legs. 

Truth: When you talk to one another you tell the truth. 

Table: Is a furniture, covered with clothes; they sit at the table to eat, read, or 
write; it has drawers for books or other things. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 115 

Russian (female, age 17, no schooling). 
Tree: Garden. 
Bed: Cot to sleep on. 
Run: To eat; I don't know; to walk. 
Truth: Not to say a lie. 

Table: Is made of wood, straw, or other material, with or without legs. At the 
table they sit down to eat or to work, to rest or to sew. 

Russian Pole (female, age 18, no schooling). 
Tree: A fir. 
Bed: A cot. 

Run: If you drive a horse he will run. 
Truth: Who tells the truth not a lie. 

Table: To put things on, to sew on. 

Russian (female, age 18, no schooling). 

Tree: To make house from, it grows. 

Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: To run to do it quicker. 

Table: On the table we eat, write, and do other work; table stands; it is a furniture. 
Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 18, no schooling). 

Tree: That would depend upon what tree; I would give the name of a particular tree. 

Bed: On which people sleep. 

Run: To trot fast. 

Truth: If you ask whether it is true, it is true if it is true. 

Table: At a table people are sitting, putting dishes on and eating, it has legs and is 
made of wood and iron. 

Russian (female, age 19, no schooling). 

Tree: Material from which they make houses. 
Bed : On which we sleep. 
Run: Quicker than to walk. 
Truth: Man lives right. 

Table: On the table we eat and write. 

Russian (female, age 20, no schooling). 

Tree: Is a tree, woods. 
Bed: Is a bed to sleep on. 
Run: To run fast. 
Truth: Is the truth. 

Table: Is used to eat on; it is of wood or other things. 

Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 20, no schooling). 

Tree: To make things from. 

Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: To fly quickly. 

Truth: When you tell something to some one; that is the truth. 

Table: To eat on, to receive company around, and is made by a cabinet maker. 



116 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

Austrian Pole (female, age 21, no schooling). 

Tree: Would depend what tree. 

Bed: To sleep in. 

Run: To hurry. 

Truth: Is that you must not lie. 

Table: Is for writing, eating, and for other use. It has legs and is made of wood 
Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 21, no schooling). 

Tree: An ash tree, oak tree. 
Bed: To sleep on. 

Run: All sorts of things are running. 
Truth: To tell the truth. 

Table: Is to write on, eat on. It may have drawers, it is of wood, it has legs. 
Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 23, no schooling). 

Tree: Is an oak or a linden or an aspen. 
Bed: To sleep on. 
Run: One is in a hurry to run. 
Truth: Is the best in the world. 

Table: Is to eat on, made of wood or iron, they sit down at table to eat or receive 
visitors. 

Russian (female, age 26, no schooling). 

Tree: A tree used for building. 
Bed: On which people sleep. 
Run: When a man walks fast. 
Truth: If a man acts righteous. 

Table: Always has legs, people sit at it to read and write; it is made of wood or 
something else. 

Russian Ruthenian (female, age 32, no schooling). 

Tree: Depends; fruit tree, shade tree. 
Bed: The blankets in which we sleep. 
Run: To walk is slow; to run is fast. 
Truth: Which is true. 

Table : Is used for meals or for writing, play cards at the table or use it for .other 
purpose, work on the table, to iron, cut clothes on. 

Austrian Ruthenian (female, age 20, no schooling). 

Tree: Birch aspen. 

Bed: Of wood. 

Run: If you run home in a hurry. 

Truth: To tell the truth. 

Table: Is to eat on and to write on. 

DISCUSSION. 

Immigrants defined some words better than others. They had less 
difficulty in defining ' ' bed " than in denning the other words. ' l Run " 
and " truth" were as a rule poorly defined. "Bed" and "tree" 
in many instances were defined in terms of use. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 117 

The small amount of schooling which literate immigrants had 
received was of little assistance to them when it came to rendering 
definitions. 

Much may be learned about immigrant psychology by a careful 
study of the above definitions. Many which are poorly expressed, 
so far as language is concerned, and appear to be worthless at first 
sight will upon further observation be found to contain one or more 
essential ideas. Hence in studying an immigrant's definition the ex- 
aminer should strive to pick out the idea or ideas which the definition 
contains. Thus, when the immigrant defines "run" by saying "with 
legs " he means movement of the legs. On account of a lack of formal 
training, he can not express himself. 

When as a definition of "run" he says, "All sorts of things are 
running" his idea most likely is that the capacity for running is 
common to many animals. When he says a tree "is an oak or a 
linden or an aspen " his idea is that trees are divided into many family 
groups. 

Again when an immigrant says a tree "is a seed that sprouts into 
a tree" his definition embodies three ideas; namely, that the tree 
starts from a seed, that it grows, and that it blooms into a full-grown 
affair. This definition simply lacks skill in expression. 

Careful study of an immigrant's reply will show that his definitions, 
instead of being abstract, in many cases embody his own personal 
experiences. 

The real difficulty is the lack of language ability and inexperience 
in the defining task, both of which are remediable by formal training. 
It is a hard matter to gauge an immigrant's concepts at the time of 
landing by these definitions. It is likely that the immigrant possesses 
many ideas in regard to these and other words and in attempting to 
define he only gives up a part of his information in regard to a given 
word. 

After the word "chair" was defined for the immigrants, it was 
found that practically all showed improvement in defining the 
word "table," most of them defining by use and in a more com- 
prehensive manner. The greatest improvement in defining after 
training occurred among the Hebrew children. 

Simply going to school will not enable an immigrant to define. 
In order to perform this task attention must be given to concept 
development and the expression of ideas by means of language. In 
conclusion it may be said that above the age of 9 literate as well 
as illiterate immigrants at the time of arrival give very unsatisfac- 
tory definitions. However, many immigrants are able to define 
common nouns principally in terms of use. 



118 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The Description Test consisted in presenting 5 pictures to the 
immigrant and getting him to describe what each picture represented. 
No preconceived notion as to what the immigrant knew concerning 
pictures was entertained by the examiner. 

METHOD OF TESTING. 

The 5 pictures — City, Butcher Shop, Barnyard, Harbor Scene, 
and Last Honors to Bunny (Fig. 51) — were presented to the subject 
one after another, permitting an observation of about 20 seconds in 
each case. The subject was then asked "Of what is this a picture?" 
His reply in the case of each picture was jotted down on his examina- 
tion blank ; but data are given in this bulletin only for the final picture 
(Last Honors to Bunny). In the case of this picture the following 
additional questions were asked, questions 2-6 being asked to find out 
at what question the main theme of the picture would be brought out: 

2. What is going on in the picture? 

3. What are the boys and girl doing? 

4. What is the big boy doing? 

5. Why is he digging a hole? 

6. Is he digging a hole in which to bury the rabbit? 

7. What is the girl going to do with the flowers? 

RESULTS. 

The replies of the 40 members of the Italian illiterate group to the 
first question ("Of what is this a picture?") are considered below. 
Five immigrants of this group gave a collective idea in their replies, 
3 mentioning "country scene," 1 "woods," and 1 "New York." 
The replies of 9 indicated that the subjects saw some action in the 
picture. These replies were as follows : 

(!) Girl, boy with shovel, boy crying, boy with flowers, cat, trees. 

(2) Where the sheep are grazing. 

(3) Three children that are promenading, one with flowers, one with shovel. While 
playing they find the dead rabbit. The sheep are grazing, the other child is dis- 
pleased and is crying. 

(4) Sheep grazing, cat. 

(5) Children are playing with flowers and are watching the sheep. 

(6) Boy is working with shovel, sheep are near, another one with hands to her 
face, a cat. 

(7) Boy is hunting a rabbit, sheep, little girl, boy, hat. 

(8) Children, child with flowers, boy that is digging, sheep, rabbit, plant, trees. 

(9) He is working, girl has flowers, one is watching animal. 

In reply to the same question (No. 1), 26 immigrants of this group 
simply enumerated details, some of the replies being as follows: 

(1) Kabbit, 3 children, boy, private property, hat on ground, bunch of flowers, 
boy has a shovel in his hand. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



119 



(2) Three children, sheep, hat, this is a cat, I believe, trees around. 

(3) Sheep, rabbit, children, taller boy has a shovel, hat. 

(4) One little girl, 2 boys, 2 sheep, 1 lamb, a dead rabbit, a straw hat. 

(5) Three children, sheep, hat, pig, trees. 

(6) Children in field. 




P 






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a 



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(7) Children with spade, hat, child with basket of lemons, sheep, boy, rabbit, 
trees. 

(8) This is a child, this is a child, a rabbit, a hat. 

(9) Boy, another boy and girl, sheep, trees, house, hat, shovel. 

(10) Two children, hat, this animal (pointing to rabbit) I don't know what it is, 
sheep, trees, 



120 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



(11) Hat, man, child with handkerchief, flowers in other hand, little calf, a man. 

(12) Three sheep, child 

(13) Hat, little pig, sheep, children, child with flowers, stones. 

(14) Three children, trees, a rabbit dead, boy has a shovel in his hand, trees. 

(15) Two children, 1 boy, rabbit, hat, 2 sheep, lamb, trees. 

(16) Children, 3 sheep, hat on ground, lamb on ground, hat. 

(17) Man, girl, man, animal. 

In response to this question 29 out of the 40 members of the Italian 
illiterate group pointed out the little white animal (rabbit) that lay 
on the ground and called it by the following names: Kabbit, 14; cat, 
6; animal, 3; lamb, 2; pig, 2; calf, 1; rat, 1. 

The complete responses to the first 6 questions will be shown in 
the case of 4 Italians of the same group. The first 2 (Nos. 15 and 
73) failed to see the main point of the picture and the last two 
(Nos. 7 and 76) succeeded in interpreting the picture at question 5. 

Table 42. — Responses of 4 illiterate Italians to first 6 questions of Description Test. 



Questions. 


No. 15, female, 


No. 73, female, 


No. 7, male, 


No. 76, male, 


31 >ears old. 


39 years old. 


29 years old. 


27 years old. 


(1) Of what is this a 




Boy is hunting a 


A country scene... 


Sheep grazing, cat. 


picture? 




rabbit. Little 
girl, boy, hat, 
sheep. 






(2) What is going on 


Can I know what 


It seems a private 


Three sheep 


Dead cat is on the 


in the picture? 


they are doing 
there? 


estate. 




ground. Sheep 
grazing, stream 

T\d CO 1T1 Cf 


(3) What are the boys 


One is crying, one 


Gathering flowers. 




Children are bath- 


and girl doing? 


is shoveling, one 
is looking on. 






ing their feet in 
the water. 


(4) What is the big boy 
doing? 


Digging 


He is hunting, he 
has a shovel and 


Digging the 
ground with 


He is playing with 
shovel. 








is plaving. 


shovel. 




(5) Why is he digging 


How can I know? 


Child's plav 


Maybe to bury 


He wants to bury 


a hole? 






the rabbit. 


the cat. 


(6) Is he digging a hole 


I don't know 


It may be if they 






in which to bury the 


whether he will 


do not eat it. 






rabbit? 


bury the rabbit 
or whether he is 
plajdng. 









The table below shows at what question in the picture the main 
point or theme of the story was brought out by the members of the 
Italian illiterate group. Nine immigrants failed to see the point alto- 
gether; 17 did not see the point until question 6 was reached; 9 did 
not see the point until question 5 was reached; 2 saw the point at 
question 3; and 3 saw it at question 2. 

The last column of the table shows the response to question 7 
(What is the girl going to do with the flowers?) In responding to 
this question 12 immigrants gave the " grave idea"; 10 gave the 
" home idea" — that is, to carry the flowers to mother or to the home — 
2 gave the " church idea" — that is, decorating the church — while 16 
replies may be classed as miscellaneous. 



TESTS IN REASONING. 



121 



Table 43. — Question at which the point to picture (Last Honors to Bunny) was seen by 
members of Italian illiterate group and answers given by them to seventh question. 



At what question is the 
point seen? 


What is the girl going to do with the flowers? 
(Question No. 7.) 


Men: 

6 


She wants to beautify something. 


2 


She wishes to adorn the house. 


Point missed 


I suppose she will present them to her mother. 


Do 




6 


She wants to take them to church. 


6 


To beautify some place. 


6 


Maybe she will give them to her brother. 


6 


To put on rabbit's grave. 


6 


Put into the grave. 


2 


She wants to adorn the rabbit's grave. 


Point missed 


How do I know. 


3 


She wants to decorate the grave. 


5 


She wants to adorn the grave. 


5 


Make an ornament for home. 


Point missed 


She will beautify the house. 


Do 


She is amusing herself. 


5 


I believe to decorate the rabbit's grave. 


6 


To bury them with the rabbit. 


6 


Take them to her parents. 


5 


Taking them home to her mother. 


Women: 

5 


She wants to amuse herself. 


6 


She wishes to cover the grave. 


6 


She wants to put them on table. 


5 


To put them on the rabbit. 


5 


She wants to put them on the animal's grave. 


6 


She is playing, too. 
Perhaps take them home. 


6 


6 


May decorate a little church with the flowers. 


6 


Bouquet. 

Keep them for their perfume. 

I don't know. 


6 


6 


2 


May want to put them on animal's grave. 
She wants to plant them. 
Wants to carry them to church. 


Point missed 


5 


5 


Take them with her to decorate. 


Point missed 


It seems she is crying and is disheartened. 
Wants to take them to her mother. 


Do 


3 


She wants to decorate the grave. 


Point missed 


How do you expect me to know. 
To play. 


6 





Responses by some members of the Italian and Slav illiterate 
groups to certain questions * are given below. They will throw 
light on the small amount of general information and meager picture 
experience of immigrants. 



122 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



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TESTS IN REASONING. 



123 



Among the Slav illiterate group the dead rabbit was called by 
the following names: Cat, 8; pig, 1 ; wolf, 1 ; dog, 2; lamb, 1 ; animal, 1. 

Table 45. — Statistical Results of Description Test (picture entitled "Last Honors to 

Bunny"). 







Number of aliens 






Number of aliens bring- 






giving collective 






ing out "grave idea," 






idea, etc., in re- 


Number of 


aliens seeing 


etc., in answering 






ply to question, 


point at 


lifferent ques- 


question, "What is 






" Of what is this 


tions. 




the girl going to do 






a picture?" 






with the flowers?" 


Group. 


>d 


(Question N o.l.) 






(Question No. 7.) 


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Literate: 
































9-11 


12 

25 

37 

100 


1 

2 
10 


7 

10 
18 
52 


4 

15 
17 
38 


2 
1 
1 
6 


4 
1 
3 

13 






4 

13 
17 

38 


2 

9 

11 

28 


"i" 

3 

6 


7 

6 

13 

48 


3 

4 

8 
16 


1 

15 
16 
33 


1 


Hebrew, 9-11 . 








12-14 


2 
5 


"4' 




15-above 


3 


Illiterate: 




10-11 


4 

8 

29 


1 

5 


4 

7 


3 

4 

17 


"2" 


1 
2 
1 






1 

4 

10 


"2" 

10 


2 

"e" 


1 

15 


1 
3 

1 


13 

3 

11 




12-14 






1 


15— above 






2 


Italian- 








Men 


20 
20 


3 
2 


6 
3 


11 

15 





2 
1 


1 
1 


... 


4 
5 


8 
9 


5 
4 


7 
5 


7 
3 


6 
U2 




Women 




Slav- 
































Men 


10 
30 




6 

8 


4 
22 


.... 


1 


1 

1 


... 


6 
12 


1 
11 


1 

6 


1 

6 


2 
23 


7 
10 




Women 













1 Includes 2 aliens who gave the "church idea." 

2 One alien, not included in these figures, gave a "grave" or "home" idea. 



DISCUSSION. 

Pictures are useful for the test of associating a visual impression 
with an auditory word memory or associating an auditory impression 
with a visual memory. Thus, the examiner may get the subject to 
name the different details of a picture as he points to them or the 
subject may be requested to point to the different details as the exam- 
iner names them. Range and quality of experiences on the part of 
the subject may be determined by this procedure. 

All of the pictures were poorly described. It is obvious that the 
result obtained from the "Last Honors to Bunny' ' picture is entirely 
different from the result which would be obtained in the case of 
people other than arriving immigrants. 

In order to interpret a picture correctly, the immigrant must be 
familiar with pictures of various kinds. He must also be experienced 
in the customs or events portrayed in a picture. In addition he 
must possess the power of constructive imagination. In other words, 
he can arrive at a situation portrayed in a picture only after analyzing 
and separately considering all the picture elements in the light of 
past experiences, then combining all these findings into the interpre- 



124 MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 

tation. Good vision is also a necessary requisite in the performance 
of this test. The poor showing is due more often to a lack of expe- 
rience with pictures and the scenes which they depict than to a lack 
of constructive imagination. 

Among the 100 immigrants of the literate 15 and above group, a 
group wherein we would naturally expect to find the quickest and 
best interpretations, we find that only 6 immigrants gave the correct 
interpretation of "Last Honors to Bunny" picture at the first 
scrutiny; 38 did not interpret the picture until question 5 was 
reached; 26 did not succeed until question 6 was reached; and 6 did 
not catch the point or theme of the picture at all. The other groups 
of immigrants did not do as well in this test as the literate 15 and 
above group. 

In many instances when questions 5 and 6 were reached and the 
immigrant saw the essential point of the picture for the first time, 
a smile came over his face. 

The poor interpretations of the last picture were partly due to 
some of the following causes: Mistakes of details; took the rabbit 
for a cat, dog, goat, pig, etc. They had never seen pets treated well. 
They had never seen them treated with signal honors. Many are 
not accustomed to seeing rabbits used as pets. Peasants do not see 
well dressed children and sheep grazing at the same time. Whenever 
sheep are grazing and people are near-by, it usually means the people 
are attending the sheep. In certain places it is not customary to 
cover the grave of the dead with flowers. Even if an immigrant has 
had some experience with pictures, pictures of this kind are hard to 
interpret. 

From a problem standpoint, it is well in testing to use pictures 
that portray certain native scenes with which peasants are more or 
less familiar. 



COMPARATIVE SCORES OF ARRIVING IMMIGRANTS. 

In order to show for comparative purposes what the different 
groups and individuals accomplished during these psychological 
studies, a system of scoring has been arranged for those tests which 

required little or no paraphernalia. The tests scored are already in 
use at many immigrant stations. 

POINTS ALLOTTED TO EACH TEST. 

The points given to each test are enumerated in the following table : 

Table 46. — Points allotted to each test. 
Counting: Points. 

2 to 20 by 2 's 2 

20tol 3 

20 to 2 by 2 's 4 

3 to 30 by 3's 4 

Total 13 

Addition: 

3+4 1 

6+6 1 

6+7 1 

8+6 1 

15+15 1 

15+16 1 

2+3+4 1 

2+4+6+8 2 

17+13+9+4 3 

Total 12 

Division: 

20-J-4 3 

Problems: 

20-(3+4) 5 

20-(2+7) 5 

Total 10 

Cube Test: 

10 movements 10 

Obeying commands 5 

Copying and drawing from memory: 

Diamond 3 

Double trapezoid 3 

Trapezoid 3 

Interlocking figure 3 



Total 12 

125 



126 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Heal y: Points. 

Trial 1 i6 

Trial 2 1 

Total ~~ ~7 

Repeating digits 9 

Opposites 8 

Learning 2 4 

Days backward 2 

Name of months 3 

Arranging weights 2 

Grand total 100 

TOTAL SCORE MADE BY EACH IMMIGRANT TESTED. 

The following table gives the total score made by each immigrant 
tested. For reference the nationality, race, immigrant's number among 
those of his nationality, sex, age, and amount of schooling (in years) are 
given. In each group the immigrants are arranged according to age. 

Table 47. — Total score made by each immigrant, with data as to nationality, sex, age, etc. 



Group. 


Nationality. 


Race. 


Immigrant's No. 
among those of 
his nationality. 


H 

9 


< 


Amount of school- 
ing expressed in 
years. 


<D 

E 

O 

o 

m 




/Italy 


Italian, South 


13 

1 

88 

85 

1 

9 

2 

72 

89 

6 

70 

13 

8 

34 

36 

22 

5 

30 

25 

39 

47 

9 

23 

46 

31 

28 

29 

33 

38 

11 

42 

17 

48 

21 

49 

15 

35 


M. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
F. 


9 
9 
10 
10 
10 
10 

11 
11 
11 
11 
11 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
11 
11 
11 
11 
11 


3 

1J 

2 
1 
4 
3 
5 
4 
3 

1J 

4 

1 

5* 

4 

3 

2 

5 

3* 

3 

3 

3 

2* 

2 

* 

3 

2* 

2 

1 

1 
* 
* 

6 

5J 

4 
2 
1 


86i 
75 




Norway 


Scandinavian 




Italy 


Italian, South 


83 




....do 


do 


75 




Denmark 


Scandinavian 


90 




Turkey 


Greek 


90 




Denmark 


Scandinavian 


91 




Italy 


Italian, North 


82 




....do 


Italian, South 


73 




Russia 


Polish 


83 




Italy 


Italian, North 


85 




Russia 


Russian 


89 




f....do 


Hebrew 


84 




....do 


do 


87* 
86* 
77 




....do 


do 




do 


do 




....do 


do 


87* 
58* 




do 


do 




do 


do 


86 




....do 


do 


93 




....do 


do 


78 




Austria 


do 


88 




Russia 


do 


90* 

88 




do 


do 


Hebrew literate, 


Austria 


do 


80* 


9-11. 


Russia 


do 


82* 




....do 


do 


93 




do 


do 


83 




....do 


do 


65 




....do 


do 


89 




....do 


do 


73* 




do 


do 


83 




do 


do 


95 




....do 


do 


91 




Rou nania 


do 


79* 




Russia 


do 


88 




....do 


do 


11 h 


78 



i During the first trial, if the Healy Test is performed within the first 30 seconds, 6 points are allowed. 
If performed between 30 seconds and 60 seconds, 5 points are allowed; 4 points are allowed if it is performed 
between 1 and 2 minutes; 3 points are allowed if it be performed between 2 and 3 minutes; 2 points if it be 
performed between 3 and 4 minutes; and 1 point if between 4 and 5 minutes. At the second trial if it be 
performed within 30 seconds, 1 additional point is earned. 

s If the immigrant succeeds in the Learning Test at trial 1, 4 points are given. If he succeeds at trial 2, 
3 points are given; if at trial 3, 2 points; and if at trial 4, he obtains 1 point. 



COMPARATIVE SCORES OF ARRIVING IMMIGRANTS. 



127 



Table 47.— Total score made by each immigrant, with data as to nationality, sex, age, etc. — 

Continued. 



Group. 



Literate, 12-14. 



Nationality. 



Literate, 15 and 
above. 



Italy... . 
Turkey . . 
Norway. 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Italy. . . . 
Russia . . 
Italy.... 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Austria . 
Greece . . 
Italy. . . . 
....do.. 
Austria . 
Italy.... 
....do.. 
Russia . . 
Italy. . . . 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Austria . 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Italy. . . . 
Norway. 
Italy. . . . 
....do.. 
....do.. 
Russia . . 
.....do.. 
Italy. . . . 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Italy.... 
Russia . . 
Austria . 
Italy.... 

do.. 

....do.. 
Austria. 
Italy.... 
Austria. 
Russia- 
Turkey . 
Spain . . . 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Italy.... 
Ireland. . 
Norway. 
Austria. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
Italy.... 
Austria. 
Greece.. 
Italy.... 
— do.. 
....do.. 
Spain . . . 
Russia . . 
....do.. 
Italy.... 
Austria . 
Russia.. 
Italy.... 
Austria . 
Spain... 



Race. 



Italian, South. 

Hebrew 

Scandinavian . 

Ruthenian 

Hebrew 

Italian, North. 

Hebrew 

Italian 

Italian, South. 

do 

do 

Hebrew 

do... 

German 

Greek 

Italian, South. 

do 

Ruthenian 

Italian, North. 
Italian, South. 
Lithuanian . . . 
Italian, South. 

do 

do 

do 

Hebrew 

do 

...... do 

do 

Russian 

Italian, South. 
Scandinavian . 
Italian, South. 

do 

Italian 

Hebrew 

do 

Italian, South. 

Hebrew 

do 

Italian 

Ruthenian 

German 

Italian, north . 

do 

Italian, south . 

Hebrew 

Italian 

Ruthenian 

Hebrew 

Greek 

Spanish 

Russian 

Hebrew 

Italian, north.. 

Irish 

Scandinavian . 

German 

do 

do 

Italian, south. 

Ruthenian 

Greek 

Italian 

Italian, south. 

do 

Spanish 

Russian 

do 

Italian 

Ruthenian 

German 

Italian, south. 

Ruthenian 

Spanish 

1 Months. 



5°^ 






c — 
2^ 




V)T-* 






A <D 




















c a 




03 bt>*2 






** £r . 




"- a " 






C £5 w 




.wig a 


H 


<x> 

CJ0 


s ® «- 

o ^S 


ft 

O 
O 


co 


< 


< 


CO 


53 


M. 


12 


5 


89$ 


43 


M. 


12 


5 


95 


3 


M. 


12 


4 


92 


13 


M. 


12 


3 


89 


37 


M. 


12 


2 


92 


97 


F. 


12 


6 


82 


41 


F. 


12 


5 


94 


21 


F. 


12 


4 


80 


22 


F. 


12 


3 


77 


92 


F. 


12 


3 


78 


86 


F. 


12 


2 


84 


2 


F. 


12 


$ 


79J 


14 


M. 


13 


6 


92 


16 


M. 


13 


6 


75 


6 


M. 


13 


5 


96 


90 


M. 


13 


4 


73 


28 


M. 


13 


2$ 


83$ 


4 


M. 


13 


1* 


69 


71 


F. 


13 


4 


73$ 


31 


F. 


13 


3 


93 


1 


M. 


13 


1 


63$ 


98 


F. 


13 


3 


74 


87 


F. 


13 


2 


83$ 


96 


F. 


13 


2 


76 


2 


F. 


13 


1 


73$ 


6 


M. 


14 


6 


94 


45 


M. 


14 


5 


84$ 


10 


M. 


14 


4 


83 


44 


M. 


14 


4 


96 


8 


M. 


14 


4 


91$ 


24 


M. 


14 


2 


79$ 


2 


F. 


14 


7 


95 


55 


F. 


14 


4 


85 


99 


F. 


14 


3 


59 


74 


F. 


14 


2 


69$ 


3 


F. 


14 


1 


89 


4 


F. 


14 


1 


72 


25 


M. 


15 


8 


87 


19 


M. 


15 


7i 

3 


96 


50 


M. 


15 


93 


77 


M. 


15 


1 


82 


10 


M. 


15 


1 


80 


10 


F. 


15 


6 


71 


51 


F. 


15 


5 


91 


101 


F. 


15 


5 


88$ 


100 


F. 


15 


4 


86$ 


12 


F. 


15 


2$ 


89$ 


65 


F. 


15 


2 


85 


17 


F. 


15 


n 


68 


40 


F. 


15 


17 


76$ 


7 


M. 


16 


7 


96 


23 


M. 


16 


3 


57 


20 


M. 


16 


2$ 


91 


16 


M. 


16 


2* 


92 


18 


M. 


16 


2 


88$ 


1 


F. 


16 


8 


95$ 


4 


F. 


16 


7 


88$ 


1 


F. 


16 


6 


89 


11 


F. 


16 


6 


95 


15 


F. 


16 


6 


88$ 


102 


F. 


16 


6 


83 


23 


F. 


16 


3 


89 


4 


F. 


16 


2 


82 


83 


F. 


16 


2 


82 


91 


F. 


16 


2 


75 


30 


M. 


17 


6 


97 


2 


M. 


17 


3 


91 


21 


M. 


17 


3 


• 90 


3 


M. 


17 


2 


88 


75 


F. 


17 


5 


77 


16 


F. 


17 


3 


88 


17 


F. 


17 


3 


71 


45 


F. 


17 


3 


1 72$ 


24 


F. 


17 


2 


89 


1 8 


F. 


17 


U 


1 69$ 



128 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Table 47. — Total score made by each immigrant, with data as to nationality, sex, age, etc. 

Continued. 



Group. 



Literate, 15 and 
above — Contd. 



Illiterate, 10-11, 



Nationality. 



Illiterate, 12-14. 



/Russia 

....do 

Germany . . . 

Greece 

Russia 

Italy 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Russia 

Spain 

Germany . . . 

Italy 

Austria 

West Indies. 

Turkey 

Egypt 

Greece 

Italy 

Austria 

Russia 

Italy 

....do 

....do 

Austria 

Algiers 

Austria 

....do 

Italy 

Russia 

....do 

S Switzerland. 

Italy 

West Indies. 

Austria 

Italy 

Russia 

Italy 

....do 

Greece 

Austria 

Italy 

....do 

....do 

Spain 

Russia 

Austria 

Russia 

Spain 

Greece 

Austria 

Italy 

Greece 

West Indies. 

Spain 

Italy 

Austria 

Cuba 

Spain 

Austria 

Spain 

Austria 

(Russia 
....do 
....do 

....do 

....do 

Italy 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy 

....do 

....do 

Austria 



Race. 



German 

Hebrew 

Polish 

Greek 

Hebrew 

Italian, south . 

do 

do 

do 

Polish 

Spanish 

German 

Italian, south. 

Ruthenian 

Negro 

Armenian 

Egyptian 

Greek 

Italian, south . 

German 

do 

Italian 

do 

Italian, south . 

Hebrew 

Algerian 

German 

Ruthenian 

Italian, south. 

Russian 

do 

Swiss 

Italian, south . 

Negro 

German 

Italian, north.. 
Lithuanian . . . 

Italian 

do 

Greek 

German 

Italian 

Italian, north.. 

Italian 

Spanish 

Russian 

German 

Hebrew 

Spanish 

Greek 

German 

Italian, north.. 

Greek 

Negro 

Spanish 

Italian, north.. 

German 

Cuban 

Spanish 

German 

Spanish 

German 

Russian 

Hebrew 

....do 

Russian 

....do 

Italian, south . 

Hebrew 

German 

Italian, south . 

do 

....do 

Ruthenian — 



i Months. 









-x a 

o—< 








2'd 




co~ 






-O CD 




co O c3 






O CO 




a ^.2 






CO CO 

<— i CD 




?3 W)+2 






+J ft . 




hr|03 

•SPo fl 






qSg 




3dm 


cs 


© 




CD 
N 

o 


i—i 


0Q 


< 


< 


m 


19 


F. 


17 


n 


78* 


27 


F. 


17 


1 


85 


2 


M. 


18 


7 


86 


8 


M. 


18 


6 


95 


18 


M. 


18 


4 


86 


14 


M. 


18 


3 


90 


41 


M. 


18 


2* 


92 


8 


M. 


18 


2 


90 


29 


M. 


18 


2 


86* 


1 


M. 


18 


1J 


87* 


19 


M. 


18 


1 


77 


21 


F. 


18 


8 


89 


20 


F. 


18 


2 


81 


8 


F. 


18 


1 


79 


3 


M. 


19 


13 


88 


1 


M. 


19 


10 


90 


1 


M. 


19 


9 


84 


3 


M. 


19 


5 


91* 


5 


M. 


19 


4 


85 


8 


F. 


19 


1 


86* 


20 


M. 


20 


4 


89 


67 


M. 


20 


2 


91 


78 


M. 


20 


2 


83* 


95 


M. 


20 


2 


68i 


20 


F. 


20 


3 


63* 


1 


M. 


21 


6 


85 


9 


F. 


21 


6 


90 


3 


F. 


21 


5 


91 


69 


F. 


21 


2 


80 


14 


F. 


21 


2 


89 


18 


F. 


21 


1 


91 


1 


M. 


22 


8 


88 


39 


M. 


22 


2 


76i 


1 


F. 


22 


8 


89 


14 


F. 


22 


8 


96 


68 


F. 


22 


3 


83 


2 


F. 


22 


1 


61 


63 


F. 


23 


3 


82* 


80 


F. 


23 


2 


93 


10 


M. 


24 


5 


89* 


3 


F. 


24 


5 


94 


46 


F. 


24 


3 


94 


27 


M. 


25 


2 


93 


43 


M. 


25 


2 


89 


9 


M. 


26 


2 


82 


11 


M. 


26 


1 


91 


12 


F. 


27 


8 


96 


32 


M. 


27 


5 


92 


11 


M. 


28 


6 


69* 


1 


M. 


29 


1 


52* 


4 


F. 


29 


7 


93 


47 


F. 


29 


3 


87* 


11 


M. 


31 


3 


87* 


2 


M. 


31 


2 


79* 


1 


M. 


33 


9 


90 


26 


M. 


34 


8 


82 


5 


F. 


34 


6 


67* 


1 


M. 


35 


8 


87 


4 


M. 


36 


9 


87* 


13 


M. 


38 


4 


86 


10 


M. 


40 


1 


81* 


2 


F. 


44 


6 


83 


16 


M. 


10 





50 


7 


F. 


11 





70 


1 


F. 


11 





77 


11 


F. 


11 





67 


26 


F. 


12 


13 


65* 


32 


M. 


12 


12 


54 


26 


F. 


12 





67 


7 


M. 


13 





87 


16 


M. 


13 





59* 


94 


M. 


14 





82 


44 


F. 


14 





81 


22 1 


F. 


14 





69 



COMPARATIVE SCORES OF ARRIVING IMMIGRANTS. 



129 



Table 47. — Total score made by each immigrant, with data as to nationality, sex, n/jr < 

Continued. 



Group. 


Nationality. 


Race. 


Immigrant's No. 
among those of 
his national 11 


9 


9 


Amount of school- 
ing expressed in 

years. 


c 

o 




[ Spain 


Spanish 


13 
26 

6 
12 
15 

5 
14 
13 
17 
21 
24 
18 

1 

3 

2 
20 

5 

1 

18 

25 

103 

6 
16 

3 
22 
24 
40 

7 
17 
38 
84 

6 

9 
93 
79 
52 
34 
33 
37 
59 
19 
76 

7 
12 

4 

10 
36 
35 
11 

1 
60 


M. 
F. 
P. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M, 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
M. 
F. 
F. 


IS 
15 
15 

16 
16 
16 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
20 
20 
22 
23 
23 
25 
25 
27 
30 
31 
31 
31 
32 
39 
42 
43 
46 
58 
16 
16 
18 
18 
19 
20 
21 
23 
24 
21 
25 
27 
27 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
31 
39 
16 
16 







1 3 



i 2 



i 4! 



i 2 






21 

i 3 








14 


i 3 




- 1 

' 5 

21 




i 5 





2 1 








85 




Austria 


Ruthenian 


15 




....do 


German 


72 




Spain 


Spanish 


82 




do 


do 


76 




Greece 


Greek 


60 




Spain 


Spanish 


61 




Russia 


Hebrew 


-,()■■ 




Spain 


Spanish 


89 




do 


do 


64 




Austria 


Hebrew 


SI 




Russia 


German 


88 




Syria 


Arabian 


64 




Russia 

Greece 

Spain 


Lithuanian. . . 


63 


Illiterate, 15 and 


Greek 


78 


above. 


Spanish 


56j 




do 


do 


86 




Roumania 


Roum anian 


7S 




Spain. 


Spanish 


65 




do 


do 


76 




Italy 


Italian, south 


62 




Spain 


Spanish 


83 




do 


do 


84 




do*... 


do 


62 




....do 

....do 


do 


88 




do 


77 




Italy 


Italian 


76 




Spain 


Spanish 


78 




vltalv 


Italian 


72 




-....do 


Italian, central .< 


63 




....do 


Italian, south 


86 


- 


....do 


do 


67 




....do 


do 


89 




....do 


do 


69) 




....do 


do 


81 




....do ;.... 


do 


78 




do3 


do 


(',.">} 




....do 


do 


81 




....do 


...do 


87 




...do 


..do 


82 


Italian illiterate. 


do 

....do 


...do 


78 

85 J 




....do 


Italian, south 


ir>\ 




....do 


do 


50il 




....do 


do 


35 




....do 


do 


91 




....do 


do 


83 




do.< 


. do 


71 




....do 


.do 


92 




....do 


Italian, north 


56 




L ....do 


Italian 


52 



' Months. 

2 Month. 

3 The following remarks are to be found on the examination charts of certain immigrant s. These remarks 
contain the general impression which the subject made upon the examiner. 

34, Italian. " Perhaps a high-grade defective." 

35, Italian. "Emotionally defective?" 

42, Italian. " Not far from a high grade (mental defective). Some results point to normality and others 
point to defect." 

54, Italian. " Defective, perhaps." 

57, Italian. "Feeble-minded, perhaps." 

9, Russia, Ruthenian. "Stupid,dull of comprehension, weeps at the end of the examination. II is hard 
to decide at this time whether this is a case of ignorance or mental deficiency. ' ' 

11, Austria, Ruthenian. " Perhaps high-grade defective.'' 

3, Spanish. " Results in some tests point to mental deficiency.'' 

These immigrants are included among the normals, because a positive diagnosis could not be made in 
any of these cases at the termination of an examination which lasted one and one-half hours. Many si milar 
cases are found during the mental examination of arriving immigrants, and it frequently requires a period 
of observation and three or four examinations before a diagnosis can be agreed to by two medical officers. 

As stated in the introduction, a positive diagnosis of mental deficiency was made in three cases, whose 
records were excluded from the data of the investigation. 

< Suspected case of mental defectiveness. (See footnote p. — .) 

1970°— 17 9 



130 



MENTALITY OF THE ARRIVING IMMIGRANT. 



Table 17. — Total score made by eadi immigrant, with data as to nationality, sex, age, etc. 

Continued. 



(iroup. 


Nationality. 


Race. 


Immigrant's No. 
among those of 
his nationality. 


o 

CO 


<D 

bo 

< 


Amount of school- 
ing expressed in 
years. 


<s 




CO 




f .Italy 


Italian, south 


64 

23 

48 

56 

58 

42 

62 

81 

82 

50 

49 

54 

57 

61 

73 

66 

15 

3 

10 

25 

25 

1 

7 

5 

9 

11 

7 

9 

26 

22 

7 

14 

11 

4 

8 

19 

4 

22 

23 

1 

6 

15 

15 

5 

6 

19 

18 

20 

21 

3 

2 

5 

9 

2 

24 

12 

12 

10 


F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

M. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

P." 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 

F. 


16 
17 
17 
19 
19 
20 
20 
20 
23 
24 
25 
25 
25 
25 
28 
29 
31 
35 
16 
16 
16 
18 
18 
20 
22 
24 
29 
33 
12 
14 
16 
16 
17 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
18 
19 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
27 
32 
32 
35 


( l ) 















34 



3* 


2 3 

25 





25 


23 


24 





0) 








23 




*6 










2 3 





464 
354 
75| 




....do 


Italian 




....do 


Italian, south 




....do 


do 


75 




do 


...do 


504 




do. 2 


.do 


33 




....do., 


..do 


45 




....do 


..do 


84 


Italian illiterate 


....do 


.do 


59 


....do 


... .do.. 


824 
564 




....do 


...do. . .. 




do. 2 


..do. . 


40 




....do. 2 


Italian . . 


35 




....do 


Italian, south . . 


70 




....do 


do 


684 
76| 
45 




....do 


Italian, north 




....do 


Italian, south 




....do 


do 


74 




/Russia 


Russian 


92 




....do 


. ...do 


77 




Austria 


Ruthenian 


85 




Russia 


Russian 


85 




....do 


do 


81 




...do 


Polish 


764 
67| 
494 
93 




....do. 3 


Ruthenian 




Austria 3 


...do 




Russia 


Polish 




....do 


Russian 


76 




....do 


do 


654 




Austria 


Ruthenian 


69 




....do 


do 


81 




....do 


. .do 


58 




Russia 


Polish 


59 




....do 


Russia 


56 




do 


Polish 


74 




Austria 


Ruthenian 


694 




Russia 


Polish 


73 


Slav illiterates 


do 


Russian 


524 




do 


. .do 


864 




Austria 


Ruthenian 


58 




do 


do 


844 




... do . ... 


.do 


584 




Russia 


Russian 


784 




....do 


...do 


704 




....do 


.do 


724 
75 




..do 


...do 


~ 


Austria 


Ruthenian 


84 




do 


...do 


72 




...do 


...do 


79 




....do 


Polish 


87 




....do 


Ruthenian 


60 




.. do 


...do 


87 




Russia 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

do 


Polish 


92 




Russian 


90 




...do 


674 




Ruthenian 


87 




Russian 


63 




Polish 


62 









1 Few months. 

2 Months. 

3 Suspected case of mental defectiveness. 
« Weeks. 



(See footnote p. — .) 



COMPARATIVE SCORES OF ARRIVING IMMIGRANTS. 131 

DISCUSSION. 

In order to compare the result of an examination with the score 
obtained in this investigation, the examination must be conducted 
in a quiet room in the presence of no one but interpreter and ex- 
aminer. Twenty-four hours at least must intervene between the 
time of the immigrant's arrival and the examination, and the method 
of the examination must follow as closely as possible the method 
employed in this investigation. In order to confirm or disprove the 
result of any test of this investigation, it is important that the sub- 
ject be put through a five-minute period of preliminary questioning 
before the test in question is propounded. 

It is well to remember that during the experiment the most intel- 
ligent subjects failed on certain tests and that many immigrants who 
made a low general average made an excellent showing with some of 
the tests. 

The complete examination as conducted in this experiment has 
been found to be a severe strain on children under 10 years of age. 
Many such children are also inaccessible at a first examination. 
Even those who reply to questions and attempt to perform tests are 
disturbed and do not do themselves entire justice when first examined. 
A seemingly inaccessible child may cooperate after seeing others 
perform tests and answer questions. 

The medical examiner planning to familiarize himself with the 
psychology of immigrant children is advised first to test young chil- 
dren of different races in counting, simple addition, identifying 
objects, repeating digits, and performing the cube test in order to get 
a general idea of the normal child mind at the time of landing. Such 
tests will assist the examiner in understanding the child's mental 
content, his manner of thinking, his emotional reaction, and his 
cooperative power. 

The examination chart of each immigrant tested together with 
tabulations showing the correlations in all tests for each individual 
are on file at Ellis Island. They may be inspected at any time by 
medical officers and others interested in the subject. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Psychology. By William James. Henry Holt, N. Y. 1908. 

Handbook of Mental Examination Methods by Shepherd Ivory Franz, Ph. D. The — 
Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases Publishing Co. 1912. 
j^A Method of Measuring the Development of the Intelligence of Young Children. By — 
Alfred Binet and Th. Simon, authorized translation by Clara Harrison Town, Ph. D 
Chicago Medical Book Co. 1913. 
The Psychology of Efficiency. By Henry Alford Ruger, Ph. D. The Science Press, 
New York. 1910. 

ssociations Tests. By R. S. Woodworth and Frederick Lyman Wells. Psychologies I 
Review Co. Princeton, N. J. Dec, 1911. 
X^Manual of Mental and Physical Tests. By Guy M. Whipple, Warwick and York. ~~ 

Baltimore. 1911. 
^Education. By Edward L. Thorndike. 

' 132 

o